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Since May 10th 2008


Initial Z



Zingiber officinale
Zizyphus jujuba


 

 

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Zizyphus jujuba Mill.
Related species often used interchangeably is Z. jujuba var. inermis Rehd. (Rhamnaceae)

Synonyms
Rhamnus ziziphus L., Zizyphus mauritiana Lam., Z. sativa Gaertn., Z. vulgaris Lam., Z. vulgaris Lam. var. inermis Bunge, Z. zizyphi Karst.

Local names
Annab, badari, bayear, ber, black date, bor, borakoli, borehannu, brustbeeren, Chinese date, Chinese jujube, common jujube, da t’sao, desi ber, hei zao, hong zao, ilandai, jujube, jujube date, jujube plum, kamkamber, koli, kul, kul vadar, lanta, lantakkura, narkolikul, natsume, onnab, phud sa chin, red date, regi, spine date, unnab, vadai, vadar, vagari, zao

Description
A spiny, deciduous shrub or a small tree, up to 10 m high; spines in groups of two, one straight, up to 2.5 cm long and one curved. Leaves alternate, petiolate, oval-lanceolate, 2–7 cm long, 2.5–3.0 cm wide; apex slightly obtuse; base oblique; margin closely serrulate, with three veins. Inflorescence an axillary cyme. Flowers perfect, seven to eight in each cluster; calyx with cupuliform tube and fi ve segments; petals fi ve, yellow; disk lining the calyx tube; stamens fi ve; ovary depressed into the disk. Fruits are fleshy drupes, ovoid or oblong, 1.5–5.0 cm long, dark reddish brown when ripe

Plant material used
dried ripe fruits

Chemical assays
Qualitative and quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography for the presence of 3-O-trans- and 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, and jujubosides A and B

Major chemical constituents
Major characteristic constituents are triterpenes and triterpene saponins, including alphitolic, betulinic, maslinic, oleanolic, ursolic, 3-O-trans-alphitolic, 3-O-cis-p-alphitolic alphitolic, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic, and 3-O-trans-p-coumaroylalphitolic acids; and zizyphus saponins I, II, III, jujuboside B, spinosin and swertisin. Three triterpene oligoglycosides, jujubosides A1 and C, and acetyljujuboside B have been isolated from the seeds. Also present in the fruit are the biologicallyactive compounds cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, with concentrations estimated at 100–500.0 nmol/g and 30–50.0 nmol/g, respectively. A polysaccharide named ziziphus-arabinan has also been isolated from the fruit

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None. Although one uncontrolled human study has suggested that Fructus Zizyphi may be of some benefi t for the treatment of insomnia, data from controlled clinical trials are lacking.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
To promote weight gain, improve muscular strength, and as an immunostimulant to increase physical stamina. Treatment of insomnia due to irritability and restlessness.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an antipyretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, sedative and tonic. Treatment of asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, eye diseases, inflammatory skin conditions, liver disorders, scabies, ulcers and wounds

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antiallergenic, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Antihyperglycaemic, CNS depressant, Immune stimulation, Platelet aggregation inhibition

Human study
CNS depressant

Adverse reactions
No information available.

Contraindications
No information available.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous and a methanol extract of the fruits were not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 or the Bacillus subtilis recombination assay at concentrations up to 100.0 mg/ml. A 70% ethanol extract of the fruits, up to 4.0 mg/ml, was not mutagenic in either the SOS-chromotest (Escherichia coli PQ37) or the SOS-umu test (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535). Intragastric administration of 1.0 g of the fruits per day to rats for 15 months inhibited the growth of adenocarcinomas of the stomach induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Administration of a 95% ethanol extract of the fruits in drinking-water, average daily dose 100 mg/kg bw, to mice for 3 months had no significant spermatotoxic effects

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic or non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use.

Dosage forms
Dried fruits, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts. Store in a tightly sealed
container away from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dose: fruits 6–15 g

 

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