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Zingiber officinale
Zizyphus jujuba



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Untitled Document Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)

Amomum zingiber L., Zingiber blancoi Massk.

Local names
Ada, adrak, adu, African ginger, ajenjibre, ale, alea, allam, allamu, ardak, ardraka, ardrakam, ardrakamu, asunglasemtong, ata-le jinja, baojiang, beuing, chiang, citaraho, cochin ginger, common ginger, djae, gember, gengibre, gingembre, ginger, ginger root, gnji, gung, halia bara, halia, halija, hli, inchi, Ingberwurgel, inguere, inguru, Ingwer, jahe, Jamaica ginger, janzabeil, kallamu, kan chiang, kanga, kerati, khenseing, khiang, khing, khing-daeng, khing klaeng, khing phueak, khuong, kintoki, jion, konga, lahja, lei, luya, mangawizi, ngesnges, niamaku, oshoga, palana, palu, rimpang jahe, sa-e, sakanjabir, sge ugser, shengiang, shenjing, shoga, shonkyoh, shokyo, shouhkyoh, tangawizi, wai, zanjabeel, zangabil ee-e-tar, zingabil urratab, zingibil, zingiberis rhizoma, zinjabil, zingiber, zinam

A perennial herb with a subterranean, digitately branched rhizome producing stems up to 1.50 m in height with linear lanceolate sheathing leaves (5–30cm long and 8–20 mm wide) that are alternate, smooth and pale green. Flower stems shorter than leaf stems and bearing a few flowers, each surrounded by a thin bract and situated in axils of large, greenish yellow obtuse bracts, which are closely arranged at end of flower stem forming collectively an ovate-oblong spike. Each flower shows a superior tubular calyx, split part way down one side; an orange yellow corolla composed of a tube divided above into 3 linearoblong, blunt lobes; 6 staminodes in 2 rows, the outer row of 3 inserted at mouth of corolla; the posterior 2, small, horn-like; the anterior petaloid, purple and spotted and divided into 3 rounded lobes; an inferior, 3-celled ovary with tufted stigma. Fruit a capsule with small arillate seeds

Plant material used
dried rhizome

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 2% v/w of volatile oil, as determined by the method described in WHO guidelines. Qualitative analysis by thin-layer chromatography; qualitative and quantitative gas chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography analyses of ginger oils for gingerols, shogaols, a-zingiberene, -bisabolene, -sesquiphellandrene, and ar-curcumene

Major chemical constituents
The rhizome contains 1–4% essential oil and an oleoresin. The composition of the essential oil varies as a function of geographical origin, but the chief constituent sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (responsible for the aroma) seem to remain constant. These compounds include (-)-zingiberene, (+)-ar-curcumene, (-)-β- sesquiphellandrene, and β-bisabolene. Monoterpene aldehydes and alcohols are also present. The constituents responsible for the pungent taste of the drug and possibly part of its anti-emetic properties have been identified as 1-(3'- methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyalkan-3-ones, known as [3–6]-, [8]-, [10]-, and [12]-gingerols (having a side-chain with 7–10, 12, 14, or 16 carbon atoms, respectively) and their corresponding dehydration products, which are known as shogaols

Dosage forms
Dried root powder, extract, tablets and tincture. Powdered ginger should be stored in well-closed containers (not plastic) which prevent access of moisture. Store protected from light in a cool, dry place.

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
The prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, postoperative nausea, pernicious vomiting in pregnancy, and seasickness.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
The treatment of dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, vomiting, diarrhoea, spasms, and other stomach complaints. Powdered ginger is further employed in the treatment of colds and flu, to stimulate the appetite, as a narcotic antagonist, and as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of migraine headache and rheumatic and muscular disorders.

Uses described in traditional medicine
To treat cataracts, toothache, insomnia, baldness, and haemorrhoids, and to increase longevity

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Cholagogic, Antiemetic, Anti-inflammatory

Human studies
Antinausea and antiemetic, Anti-inflammatory,

No information available.

No information available.

Patients taking anticoagulant drugs or those with blood coagulation disorders should consult their physician prior to self-medication with ginger. Patients with gallstones should consult their physician before using ginger preparations.

Drug interactions
Ginger may affect bleeding times and immunological parameters owing to its ability to inhibit thromboxane synthase and to act as a prostacyclin agonist. However, a randomized, double-blind study of the effects of dried ginger (2 g daily, orally for 14 days) on platelet function showed no differences in bleeding times in patients receiving ginger or a placebo (49, 50). Large doses (12–14g) of ginger may enhance the hypothrombinaemic effects of anticoagulant therapy, but the clinical significance has yet to be evaluated.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
The mutagenicity of ginger extracts is a controversial subject. A hot-water extract of ginger was reported to be mutagenic in B291I cells and Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 100, but not in strain TA 98. A number of constituents of fresh ginger have been identified as mutagens. Both [6]-gingerol and shogaols have been determined to be mutagenic in a Salmonella/microsome assay (52), and increased mutagenesis was observed in an Hs30 strain of Escherichia coli treated with [6]-gingerol. However, the mutagenicity of [6]- gingerol and shogaols was suppressed in the presence of various concentrations of zingerone, an antimutagenic constituent of ginger. Furthermore, ginger juice was reported to be antimutagenic and suppressed the spontaneous mutations induced by [6]-gingerol, except in cases where the mutagenic chemicals 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acryl amide and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine were added to [6]-gingerol. Other investigators have also reported that ginger juice is antimutagenic.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
In a double-blind randomized cross-over clinical trial, ginger (250mg by mouth, 4 times daily) effectively treated pernicious vomiting in pregnancy. No teratogenic aberrations were observed in infants born during this study, and all newborn babies had Apgar scores of 9 or 10 after 5 minutes.

Paediatric use
Not recommended for children less than 6 years of age.

Other precautions
No information available concerning drug and laboratory test interactions, or non-teratogenic effects on pregnancy or nursing mothers.

Adverse reactions
Contact dermatitis of the finger tips has been reported in sensitive patients.

For motion sickness in adults and children more than 6 years: 0.5 g, 2–4 times daily. Dyspepsia, 2–4g daily, as powdered plant material or extracts


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