Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)
Amomum zingiber L., Zingiber blancoi Massk.
Ada, adrak, adu, African ginger, ajenjibre, ale, alea, allam, allamu, ardak,
ardraka, ardrakam, ardrakamu, asunglasemtong, ata-le jinja, baojiang, beuing,
chiang, citaraho, cochin ginger, common ginger, djae, gember, gengibre, gingembre,
ginger, ginger root, gnji, gung, halia bara, halia, halija, hli, inchi, Ingberwurgel,
inguere, inguru, Ingwer, jahe, Jamaica ginger, janzabeil, kallamu, kan chiang,
kanga, kerati, khenseing, khiang, khing, khing-daeng, khing klaeng, khing phueak,
khuong, kintoki, jion, konga, lahja, lei, luya, mangawizi, ngesnges, niamaku,
oshoga, palana, palu, rimpang jahe, sa-e, sakanjabir, sge ugser, shengiang,
shenjing, shoga, shonkyoh, shokyo, shouhkyoh, tangawizi, wai, zanjabeel, zangabil
ee-e-tar, zingabil urratab, zingibil, zingiberis rhizoma, zinjabil, zingiber,
A perennial herb with a subterranean, digitately branched rhizome producing
stems up to 1.50 m in height with linear lanceolate sheathing leaves (5–30cm
long and 8–20 mm wide) that are alternate, smooth and pale green. Flower
stems shorter than leaf stems and bearing a few flowers, each surrounded by
a thin bract and situated in axils of large, greenish yellow obtuse bracts,
which are closely arranged at end of flower stem forming collectively an ovate-oblong
spike. Each flower shows a superior tubular calyx, split part way down one side;
an orange yellow corolla composed of a tube divided above into 3 linearoblong,
blunt lobes; 6 staminodes in 2 rows, the outer row of 3 inserted at mouth of
corolla; the posterior 2, small, horn-like; the anterior petaloid, purple and
spotted and divided into 3 rounded lobes; an inferior, 3-celled ovary with tufted
stigma. Fruit a capsule with small arillate seeds
Plant material used
Contains not less than 2% v/w of volatile oil, as determined by the method described
in WHO guidelines. Qualitative analysis by thin-layer chromatography; qualitative
and quantitative gas chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography
analyses of ginger oils for gingerols, shogaols, a-zingiberene, -bisabolene,
-sesquiphellandrene, and ar-curcumene
Major chemical constituents
The rhizome contains 1–4% essential oil and an oleoresin. The composition
of the essential oil varies as a function of geographical origin, but the chief
constituent sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (responsible for the aroma) seem to remain
constant. These compounds include (-)-zingiberene, (+)-ar-curcumene, (-)-β-
sesquiphellandrene, and β-bisabolene. Monoterpene aldehydes and alcohols
are also present. The constituents responsible for the pungent taste of the
drug and possibly part of its anti-emetic properties have been identified as
1-(3'- methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyalkan-3-ones, known as [3–6]-,
-, -, and -gingerols (having a side-chain with 7–10, 12, 14,
or 16 carbon atoms, respectively) and their corresponding dehydration products,
which are known as shogaols
Dried root powder, extract, tablets and tincture. Powdered ginger should be
stored in well-closed containers (not plastic) which prevent access of moisture.
Store protected from light in a cool, dry place.
Uses supported by clinical data
The prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, postoperative
nausea, pernicious vomiting in pregnancy, and seasickness.
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well
The treatment of dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, vomiting, diarrhoea, spasms,
and other stomach complaints. Powdered ginger is further employed in the treatment
of colds and flu, to stimulate the appetite, as a narcotic antagonist, and as
an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of migraine headache and rheumatic
and muscular disorders.
Uses described in traditional medicine
To treat cataracts, toothache, insomnia, baldness, and haemorrhoids, and to
No information available.
No information available.
Patients taking anticoagulant drugs or those with blood coagulation disorders
should consult their physician prior to self-medication with ginger. Patients
with gallstones should consult their physician before using ginger preparations.
Ginger may affect bleeding times and immunological parameters owing to its ability
to inhibit thromboxane synthase and to act as a prostacyclin agonist. However,
a randomized, double-blind study of the effects of dried ginger (2 g daily,
orally for 14 days) on platelet function showed no differences in bleeding times
in patients receiving ginger or a placebo (49, 50). Large doses (12–14g)
of ginger may enhance the hypothrombinaemic effects of anticoagulant therapy,
but the clinical significance has yet to be evaluated.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
The mutagenicity of ginger extracts is a controversial subject. A hot-water
extract of ginger was reported to be mutagenic in B291I cells and Salmonella
typhimurium strain TA 100, but not in strain TA 98. A number of constituents
of fresh ginger have been identified as mutagens. Both -gingerol and shogaols
have been determined to be mutagenic in a Salmonella/microsome assay (52), and
increased mutagenesis was observed in an Hs30 strain of Escherichia coli treated
with -gingerol. However, the mutagenicity of - gingerol and shogaols was
suppressed in the presence of various concentrations of zingerone, an antimutagenic
constituent of ginger. Furthermore, ginger juice was reported to be antimutagenic
and suppressed the spontaneous mutations induced by -gingerol, except in
cases where the mutagenic chemicals 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acryl amide
and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine were added to -gingerol. Other investigators
have also reported that ginger juice is antimutagenic.
Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
In a double-blind randomized cross-over clinical trial, ginger (250mg by mouth,
4 times daily) effectively treated pernicious vomiting in pregnancy. No teratogenic
aberrations were observed in infants born during this study, and all newborn
babies had Apgar scores of 9 or 10 after 5 minutes.
Not recommended for children less than 6 years of age.
No information available concerning drug and laboratory test interactions, or
non-teratogenic effects on pregnancy or nursing mothers.
Contact dermatitis of the finger tips has been reported in sensitive patients.
For motion sickness in adults and children more than 6 years: 0.5 g, 2–4
times daily. Dyspepsia, 2–4g daily, as powdered plant material or extracts