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Initial T



Thymus vulgaris
Tanacetum parthenium
Taraxacum officinale
Trigonella foenum-graecum


 

 

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Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers (Asteraceae)

Synonyms
Leontodon officinale With., L. taraxacum L. Taraxacum officinale (With.) Wigg., T. dens leonis Desf., T. vulgare Schrank

Local names
Ackerzichorie, amargon, blowball, Butterblume, cankerwort, capo di frate, chicoria amarga, cicoria sarvatica, cicouureya de la bonne, cicoureya deis prats, dandelion, dent-de-lion, dente di leone, dhudal, diente de leon, dhorsat al ajouz, dudhi, engraissa-porc, florion d’or, gol ghased, Gemeiner Löwenzahn, gobesag, Irish daisy, hindabaa beri, hokgei, kanphul, kanphuli, kasni sahraii, Kettenblume, khass berri, Kuhblume, lagagna, laiteron, lechuguilla, lion’s tooth, Löwenzahn, maaritpauncin, marrara, milk gowan, min-deul-rre, monk’s head, mourayr, mourre de por, mourre de pouerc, oduwantschiki, paardebloem, patalagagna, peirin, Pfaffendistel, Pfaffenröhrlein, Pferdeblume, pilli-pilli, piochoublit, piss-a-bed, pissa-chin, pissanliech, pissenlit, poirin, po-kong-young, porcin, pu gong ying, puffball, pugongying, Pusteblume, ringeblume, salatta merra, sanalotodo, saris berri, seiyo-tanpopo, sofione, srissi, tarakh-chaqoune, tarkhshaquin, tarassaco, taraxaco, telma retaga, Wiesenlattich, witch gowan, yellow gowan

Description
A perennial herb consisting of an underground, long, straight, tapering, fleshy brown root, which is continued upward as a simple or branched rhizome. From the rhizome arises a rosette of bright-green runcinate leaves and later, from the centre of the rosette, a hollow scape, 6–30 cm high bearing on its summit a broad orange-yellow head of ligulate flowers. Fruits are fusiform, greenish-brown achenes, terminating in a slender stalk crowned by a silky, spreading pappus, and borne on a globular fruiting head

Plant material used
dried whole plants

Chemical assays
To be established in accordance with national requirements.

Major chemical constituents
The characteristic constituents are sesquiterpenes, including the bitter eudesmanolides tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide ß-D-glucopyranoside; and the germacranolides, taraxinic acid ß-D-glucopyranoside and 11,13-dihydrotaraxic acid ß-D-glucopyranoside. Also present are the phydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative, taraxacoside; the triterpenes, taraxasterol, φ-taraxasterol and taraxerol; and inulin (2–40%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
No information available.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
To stimulate diuresis, increase bile flow and stimulate appetite, and for treatment of dyspepsia .

Uses described in traditional medicine
As a galactagogue, laxative and tonic. Treatment of boils and sores, diabetes, fever, inflammation of the eye, insomnia, sore throat, lung abscess, jaundice, rheumatism and urinary tract infections

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic, Antimicrobial, Antiulcer, Choleretic, Diuretic, Hypoglycaemic, Immunomodulator

Human studies
No information available.

Adverse reactions
Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis and pseudoallergic contact dermatitis have been reported . Cross-reactivity has been reported in individuals with an allergy to the pollen of other members of the Asteraceae

Contraindications
Radix cum Herba Taraxaci is contraindicated in obstruction of the biliary or intestinal tract, and acute gallbladder inflammation. In case of gallbladder disease, Radix cum Herba Taraxacum should only be used under the supervision of a health-care professional

Warnings
May cause stomach hyperacidity, as with all drugs containing amaroids.

Precautions
Drug interactions
A decrease in the maximum plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin was observed in rats treated with concomitant oral administration of 2.0 g/kg bw of an aqueous extract of the whole plant and 20.0 mg/kg bw of ciprofloxacin.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
No effects on fertility were observed in female rabbits or rats after intragastric administration of 1.6 ml/kg bw of a 40% ethanol extract of the whole plant during pregnancy.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
No teratogenic or embryotoxic effects were observed in the offspring of rabbits or rats after intragastric administration of 1.6 ml/kg bw of a 40% ethanol extract of the whole plant during pregnancy

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug and laboratory test interactions; non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use.

Dosage forms
Dried whole plant, native dry extract, fluidextract and tincture. Store in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Average daily dose: 3–4 g of cut or powdered whole plant three times; decoction, boil 3–4 g of whole plant in 150 ml of water; infusion, steep 1 tablespoonful of whole plant in 150 ml of water; 0.75–1.0 g of native dry extract 4:1 (w/w); 3–4 ml fluid extract 1:1 (g/ml) (2); 5–10 ml of tincture (1:5 in 45% alcohol) three times

 

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