Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers (Asteraceae)
Leontodon officinale With., L. taraxacum L. Taraxacum officinale (With.) Wigg.,
T. dens leonis Desf., T. vulgare Schrank
Ackerzichorie, amargon, blowball, Butterblume, cankerwort, capo di frate, chicoria
amarga, cicoria sarvatica, cicouureya de la bonne, cicoureya deis prats, dandelion,
dent-de-lion, dente di leone, dhudal, diente de leon, dhorsat al ajouz, dudhi,
engraissa-porc, florion d’or, gol ghased, Gemeiner Löwenzahn, gobesag,
Irish daisy, hindabaa beri, hokgei, kanphul, kanphuli, kasni sahraii, Kettenblume,
khass berri, Kuhblume, lagagna, laiteron, lechuguilla, lion’s tooth, Löwenzahn,
maaritpauncin, marrara, milk gowan, min-deul-rre, monk’s head, mourayr,
mourre de por, mourre de pouerc, oduwantschiki, paardebloem, patalagagna, peirin,
Pfaffendistel, Pfaffenröhrlein, Pferdeblume, pilli-pilli, piochoublit,
piss-a-bed, pissa-chin, pissanliech, pissenlit, poirin, po-kong-young, porcin,
pu gong ying, puffball, pugongying, Pusteblume, ringeblume, salatta merra, sanalotodo,
saris berri, seiyo-tanpopo, sofione, srissi, tarakh-chaqoune, tarkhshaquin,
tarassaco, taraxaco, telma retaga, Wiesenlattich, witch gowan, yellow gowan
A perennial herb consisting of an underground, long, straight, tapering, fleshy
brown root, which is continued upward as a simple or branched rhizome. From
the rhizome arises a rosette of bright-green runcinate leaves and later, from
the centre of the rosette, a hollow scape, 6–30 cm high bearing on its
summit a broad orange-yellow head of ligulate flowers. Fruits are fusiform,
greenish-brown achenes, terminating in a slender stalk crowned by a silky, spreading
pappus, and borne on a globular fruiting head
Plant material used
dried whole plants
To be established in accordance with national requirements.
Major chemical constituents
The characteristic constituents are sesquiterpenes, including the bitter eudesmanolides
tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide ß-D-glucopyranoside; and the germacranolides,
taraxinic acid ß-D-glucopyranoside and 11,13-dihydrotaraxic acid ß-D-glucopyranoside.
Also present are the phydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative, taraxacoside; the
triterpenes, taraxasterol, φ-taraxasterol and taraxerol; and inulin (2–40%)
Uses supported by clinical data
No information available.
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established
To stimulate diuresis, increase bile flow and stimulate appetite, and for treatment
of dyspepsia .
Uses described in traditional medicine
As a galactagogue, laxative and tonic. Treatment of boils and sores, diabetes,
fever, inflammation of the eye, insomnia, sore throat, lung abscess, jaundice,
rheumatism and urinary tract infections
Proven pharmacological activity
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic, Antimicrobial, Antiulcer, Choleretic, Diuretic,
No information available.
Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis and pseudoallergic contact dermatitis
have been reported . Cross-reactivity has been reported in individuals with
an allergy to the pollen of other members of the Asteraceae
Radix cum Herba Taraxaci is contraindicated in obstruction of the biliary or
intestinal tract, and acute gallbladder inflammation. In case of gallbladder
disease, Radix cum Herba Taraxacum should only be used under the supervision
of a health-care professional
May cause stomach hyperacidity, as with all drugs containing amaroids.
A decrease in the maximum plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin was observed
in rats treated with concomitant oral administration of 2.0 g/kg bw of an aqueous
extract of the whole plant and 20.0 mg/kg bw of ciprofloxacin.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
No effects on fertility were observed in female rabbits or rats after intragastric
administration of 1.6 ml/kg bw of a 40% ethanol extract of the whole plant during
Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
No teratogenic or embryotoxic effects were observed in the offspring of rabbits
or rats after intragastric administration of 1.6 ml/kg bw of a 40% ethanol extract
of the whole plant during pregnancy
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning
drug and laboratory test interactions; non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy;
nursing mothers; or paediatric use.
Dried whole plant, native dry extract, fluidextract and tincture. Store in a
tightly sealed container away from heat and light.
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Average daily dose: 3–4 g of cut or powdered whole plant three times;
decoction, boil 3–4 g of whole plant in 150 ml of water; infusion, steep
1 tablespoonful of whole plant in 150 ml of water; 0.75–1.0 g of native
dry extract 4:1 (w/w); 3–4 ml fluid extract 1:1 (g/ml) (2); 5–10
ml of tincture (1:5 in 45% alcohol) three times