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Since May 10th 2008


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Thymus vulgaris
Tanacetum parthenium
Taraxacum officinale
Trigonella foenum-graecum


 

 

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Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. (Asteraceae/Compositae)

Synonyms
Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh., Leucanthemum parthenium (L.) Gren & Gordon, Matricaria eximia Hort., M. parthenium L., Pyrethrum parthenium (L.) Sm.

Local names
Acetilla, âghovân, alfinetes de senhora, altamisa, altamisa mexicana, altamza, amargosa, artemijio, artemijo, artmija, bachelor’s buttons, boulet, bouton d’argent, camamieri, camomilla, camoumida, camsumilha, canamelha, featherfew, eatherfoil, feather-fully, febrifuge plant, feverfew, feverfew tansy, flirtwort, grande camomille, hierba Santa Maria, manzanilla, matricaria, matricaria comum, midsummer daisy, Moederkruid, Mutterkraut, natsushirogiku, Santa Maria, varadika, vettervoo

Description
A perennial plant up to 30–90 cm high. Stem up to 5mm in diameter, more or less branched. Leaves greenish-yellow, 2–5 cm, sometimes up to 10cm, long; pinnatisect to bipinnate, petiolate, alternate, more or less pubescent on both sides. Capitula grouped in wide corymbs of 5–30 florets, each floret with long pedicels, and 1.2–2.2 cm in diameter. Involucre in the shape of a hemisphere, 6–8mm wide and composed of numerous partly overlapping sheathing bracts; interior bracts narrow, obtuse, scarious and fragmented at apex; exterior bracts oval and membranous on edges. Central hermaphrodite flowers yellow, tubiform, 5-toothed, and have 5 stamens inserted on the corolla; filaments entirely free, but the anthers welded together in a tube, through which passes the style with its 2 stigmatic branches. Peripheral female flowers have a white 3-toothed ligule 2–7 mm long. Fruit an achene, 1.2–1.5mm long, brown when mature, with 5–10 white longitudinal ribs; glandular with a short membranous, crenulate crown

Plant material used
dried leaves or aerial parts

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 0.2% parthenolide (dry weight), as determined by highperformance liquid chromatography

Major chemical constituents
The major constituent is parthenolide (up to 0.9%), a germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone. Parthenolide and other characteristic sesquiterpene lactones, including members of the guaianolides (e.g. canin and artecanin), contain an a-methylenebutyrolactone structure. To date, more than 45 sesquiterpenes have been identified in Herba Tanaceti Parthenii. Monoterpenes, flavonoids and polyacetylenes have also been detected

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Prevention of migraine. Although Herba Tanaceti Parthenii has been used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, a clinical study failed to prove any beneficial effects.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
None.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of anaemia, arthritis, asthma, common cold, constipation, diarrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, dyspepsia, oedema, fever, indigestion, insect bites, rheumatism, sciatica, tinnitus, toothache and vertigo

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Prevention and treatment of migraine, Anti-inflammatory, Inhibition of platelet aggregation

Human studies
Migraine, Rheumatoid arthritis

Toxicology
An in vitro study demonstrated that an extract of the herb or parthenolide was cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by mitogens and synovial cells stimulated by interleukin-1. Parthenolide-induced cytotoxicity was due to the inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA. Intragastric administration of 100 times the normal daily dose for humans of powdered leaf to rats did not result in loss of appetite or weight

Contraindications
Herba Tanaceti Parthenii is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants of the Asteraceae family, and during pregnancy.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
No significant differences were observed in the mean frequency of chromosomal aberrations or sister-chromatid exchange in the circulating peripheral lym-or longer. Urine samples from these patients did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertants in the Salmonella/microsome assay with or without metabolic activation.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
See Contraindications. The use of Herba Tanaceti Parthenii during pregnancy is contraindicated due to its uterotonic activity in vivo.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Herba Tanaceti Parthenii should not be administered during lactation or to children without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
Dizziness, heartburn, indigestion, inflammation of the mouth and tongue with swelling of the lips, loss of taste, mouth ulceration, and weight gain have been reported. Mouth ulceration is a systemic reaction to Herba Tanaceti Parthenii and requires discontinuation of the product. Inflammation of the mouth and tongue with swelling of the lips appears to be a local reaction that may be overcome by using encapsulated herb products. Abdominal bloating, heart palpitations, constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence, increased menstrual flow, nausea and skin rashes have also been reported to a lesser degree. Allergic reactions, such as contact dermatitis, have also been reported. Cross-sensitivity between pollen allergens of other members of the Compositae family, Parthenium hysterophorus (American feverfew) and Ambrosia species (ragweed), has been reported.

Dosage forms
Crude drug for decoction; powdered drug or extracts in capsules, tablets, tinctures and drops. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light and humidity.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: encapsulated crude drug equivalent to 0.2–0.6mg parthenolide (as a chemical marker) for prevention of migraine

 

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