Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill et L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae)
Caryophyllus aromaticus L., Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill., E. caryophylla Thunb.,
E. caryophyllus (C. Spreng.) Bull. et Harr., Jambosa caryophyllus (Spreng.)
Nied., Myrtus caryophyllus Spreng.
Benefundi, choji, choko, chouji, choukou, clavero, clavo de olor, clous de girofle,
clove, cloves, colve, ding huong, dingxiang, flores caryophylli, Gewürznelken,
girofle, giroflier, glove, gurunful, harilik negipuu, kaan phluu, kaan pluu,
kade, kanumfari, karafwu, karanho, kau-phlu, konofuru, koronfol, lauang, laung,
lawang, Nägelein, osaragbogo-eze, qaranfal, qoranful, qronfel, szegfüszeg,
Small evergreen trees, 10–20m high. Leaves opposite, petiolate, lanceolate,
pinkish to dark green, with translucent, aromatic glands, have a pungent odour
when young. Inflorescence occurs as racemose panicles and bears buds that take
on the form of nails before blossoming. Flowers red with 4 concave, overlapping
petals that drop off as soon as the flower opens; stamens numerous; 4 calyx
lobes. Fruit dark red, fleshy drupe. Buds readily exude oil when pressed or
scratched with a fingernail
Plant material used
dried flower buds
Contains not less than 15% (v/w) essential oil, determined by distillation
Major chemical constituents
The major constituent (up to 20%) is an essential oil, which is characterized
by the presence of eugenol (60–95%), eugenol acetate (2–27%), and
α- and β-caryophyllene (5–10%)
Uses supported by clinical data
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established
External or local applications for the treatment of toothache, and minor infections
of the mouth and skin. Also used as an antiseptic for dressing of minor wounds,
and, in the form of lozenges, for sore throats and coughs associated with the
common cold. The essential oil (1–5%) is used in mouthwashes.
Uses described in traditional medicine
Proven pharmacological activity
Treatment of asthma, bleeding gums, dyspepsia, fevers and morning sickness
Antimicrobial, Antiviral, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic
Flos Caryophylli is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants of the
No information available.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous or chloroform–methanol extract of the crude drug was not mutagenic
in the Salmonella/microsome assay at concentrations up to 100mg/ml (63, 64).
A hot aqueous extract was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using
S. typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100 at a concentration of 50mg/disk. However,
a 95% ethanol extract was mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using
S. typhimurium strain TA102 at a concentration of 10mg/plate. Eugenol was not
mutagenic in vitro (Salmonella/ microsome assay; up to 600mg/plate) or in vivo
(in mice; 200mg/kg body weight, by intramuscular injection). Local application
of eugenol reduced the carcinogenic activity of benzopyrene.
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug
interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic and nonteratogenic
effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Flos Caryophylli
should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to children without
Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported in patients who were regularly
exposed to Flos Caryophylli or who already had dermatitis of the fingertips.
Crude drug, extracts, tincture (1:5, 25% ethanol), lozenges and mouthwash. Store
in a well-closed container, protected from light.
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: crude drug 3–5g as an infusion (preferably taken hot), three
times daily; 25% ethanol extract (1:1) 3–5ml; tincture (1:5, 25% ethanol)