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Since May 10th 2008


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Sambucus nigra

Serenoa repens
Silybum marianum
Syzygium aromaticum
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria baicalensis
Sonchus arvensis


 

 

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Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill et L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae)

Synonyms
Caryophyllus aromaticus L., Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill., E. caryophylla Thunb., E. caryophyllus (C. Spreng.) Bull. et Harr., Jambosa caryophyllus (Spreng.) Nied., Myrtus caryophyllus Spreng.

Local names
Benefundi, choji, choko, chouji, choukou, clavero, clavo de olor, clous de girofle, clove, cloves, colve, ding huong, dingxiang, flores caryophylli, Gewürznelken, girofle, giroflier, glove, gurunful, harilik negipuu, kaan phluu, kaan pluu, kade, kanumfari, karafwu, karanho, kau-phlu, konofuru, koronfol, lauang, laung, lawang, Nägelein, osaragbogo-eze, qaranfal, qoranful, qronfel, szegfüszeg, ud-nuwwar

Description
Small evergreen trees, 10–20m high. Leaves opposite, petiolate, lanceolate, pinkish to dark green, with translucent, aromatic glands, have a pungent odour when young. Inflorescence occurs as racemose panicles and bears buds that take on the form of nails before blossoming. Flowers red with 4 concave, overlapping petals that drop off as soon as the flower opens; stamens numerous; 4 calyx lobes. Fruit dark red, fleshy drupe. Buds readily exude oil when pressed or scratched with a fingernail

Plant material used
dried flower buds

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 15% (v/w) essential oil, determined by distillation

Major chemical constituents
The major constituent (up to 20%) is an essential oil, which is characterized by the presence of eugenol (60–95%), eugenol acetate (2–27%), and α- and β-caryophyllene (5–10%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
External or local applications for the treatment of toothache, and minor infections of the mouth and skin. Also used as an antiseptic for dressing of minor wounds, and, in the form of lozenges, for sore throats and coughs associated with the common cold. The essential oil (1–5%) is used in mouthwashes.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of asthma, bleeding gums, dyspepsia, fevers and morning sickness

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antimicrobial, Antiviral, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic

Contraindications
Flos Caryophylli is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants of the Myrtaceae family.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous or chloroform–methanol extract of the crude drug was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay at concentrations up to 100mg/ml (63, 64). A hot aqueous extract was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100 at a concentration of 50mg/disk. However, a 95% ethanol extract was mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strain TA102 at a concentration of 10mg/plate. Eugenol was not mutagenic in vitro (Salmonella/ microsome assay; up to 600mg/plate) or in vivo (in mice; 200mg/kg body weight, by intramuscular injection). Local application of eugenol reduced the carcinogenic activity of benzopyrene.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic and nonteratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Flos Caryophylli should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to children without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported in patients who were regularly exposed to Flos Caryophylli or who already had dermatitis of the fingertips.

Dosage forms
Crude drug, extracts, tincture (1:5, 25% ethanol), lozenges and mouthwash. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: crude drug 3–5g as an infusion (preferably taken hot), three times daily; 25% ethanol extract (1:1) 3–5ml; tincture (1:5, 25% ethanol) 10–25ml

 

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