WELCOME

You're visitor number free hit counters login pageVisit the web design companies directory.

Since May 10th 2008


Initial S



Sambucus nigra

Serenoa repens
Silybum marianum
Syzygium aromaticum
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria baicalensis
Sonchus arvensis


 

 

Herb`s Initial
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Click one of the letter above, then click on one of the herb on the left panel
or type a keyword below, and hit search button

 



Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., (Asteraceae/Compositae)

Synonyms
Carduus marianus L., Carthamus maculatum Lam., Cirsium maculatum Scop., Mariana mariana (L) Hill., Silybum maculatum Moench

Local names
Akùb, Artichnuat sauvage, blessed thistle, bull thistle, cardo blanco, cardo de burro, cardo mariano, carduo mariano, chardon argente, chardon-marie, épine blanche, Frauendistelfrüchte, fructus cardui mariae, fruit de chardon marie, holy thistle, kharshat barri, khorfeish, kocakavkas, kuub, Lady’s milk, Lady’s thistle, lait de Notre Dame, marian thistle, máriatövis-termés, mariazami, Mariendistel, Mariendistelfrüchte, Marienkörner, maritighal, mild marian thistle, milk thistle, pternix, shawkeddiman, Silberdistil, silybe, silybon, silybum, St Mary’s thistle, thistle, thistle of the Blessed Virgin, true thistle, variegated marian thistle

Description
An annual or biennial herb, stem 20–150 cm high, green, glabrous or slightly arachnoid-pubescent. Leaves alternate, large, glossy green, white-veined or variegated, glabrous with strongly spiny margins, basal leaves (25–50 cm long, 12–25cm wide) cauline, pinnatifid. Inflorescence large, composed of red-purple, hermaphrodite, tubular florets gathered into a capitulum (2.5–4.0cm in diameter), tucked in an involucre with thorny external bracts. Fruits 6–7mm long, composed of 6–8 hard-skinned achenes with a white, silky pappus (15–20mm in diameter) at apex. 2n = 34

Plant material used
dried ripe fruits, freed from the pappus

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 1.5% silymarin, calculated as silybin, as analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Other high-performance liquid chromatography methods are also available

Major chemical constituents
The major active constituents are flavonolignans (1.5–3.0%), collectively known as silymarin. The major components of the silymarin complex are the four isomers silybin and isosilybin (a 1 : 1 mixture of diastereoisomers), silychristin and silydianin. Other flavonolignans identified include 2,3-dehydrosilybin and 2,3-dehydrosilychristin. Taxifolin, a 2,3-dihydroflavonol, which may be regarded as the parent flavonol of the silymarin compounds, is another major marker for Fructus Silybi Mariae

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Supportive treatment of acute or chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis induced by alcohol, drugs or toxins.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of dyspeptic complaints and gallstones.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of amenorrhoea, constipation, diabetes, hay fever, uterine haemorrhages and varicose veins

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antioxidant, Antihepatotoxic, Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic

Human studies
Antihepatotoxic, Acute and chronic viral hepatitis, Organic compound-induced hepatitis, Alcohol-induced hepatitis, Drug-induced hepatitis, Toxin-induced hepatitis

Contraindications
Fructus Silybi Mariae is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants of the Asteraceae family.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility; teratogenic and non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Fructus Silybi Mariae should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to children without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
Crude drug: one case of anaphylactic shock was reported in a patient ingesting a tea prepared from Fructus Silybi Mariae. Standardized preparation: a mild laxative effect has been reported.

Dosage forms
Usually standardized extracts for phytomedicine; crude drug for decoction. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light and humidity.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: 12–15 g crude drug; 200–400 mg silymarin, calculated as silybin, in standardized preparations. A parenteral preparation, silybin hemisuccinate sodium salt, is available in Germany for treatment of poisoning due to ingestion of Amanita phalloides. The total dosage is 20 mg/kg body weight, given as four infusions over a 24-hour period, with each dose administered over a 2-hour period

 

Herbal products and services


 

 

 

 

 

Copyright GREEN RING SOCIETY 2008