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Since May 10th 2008


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Sambucus nigra

Serenoa repens
Silybum marianum
Syzygium aromaticum
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria baicalensis
Sonchus arvensis


 

 

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Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae/labiatae)

Synonyms
Scutellaria grandiflora Adams, S. lanceolaria Miq., S. macrantha Fisch.

Local names
Baical skullcap, huang chin, huang lien, huang qin, huangqin, hwanggum, hwang-keum, Koganebana, skull cap, senohgon, whang-geum, whangegum, wogon

Description
A spreading perennial herb up to 20–60 cm high. Stems erect, tetragonal, branching near base, glabrous or pubescent in the stem margins. Leaves opposite, simple, with short petioles 2 mm long; limb lanceolate, 1.5– 4.0 cm long, 5 mm wide; tip obtuse, entire. Flowers blue to purple, in racemes. Calyx campanulate, bilabiate, the superior lip with a crest at the back; corolla tube long, much longer than the calyx, enlarged towards the top, swelling at the base; limb bilabiate; stamens four, didymous, fertile,ascending under the superior lip; anthers ciliate; ovary superior. Fruits are collections of small tuberculate nutlets, nearly globular, leathery

Plant material used
dried roots

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 9.0% of baicalin determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Other high-performance liquid chromatography methods are available

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are flavonoids, chiefly baicalin (up to 14%), baicalein (up to 5%), wogonin (0.7%) and wogonin-7-Oglucuronide (wogonoside, 4.0%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None. Although clinical case reports suggest that Radix Scutellariae may stimulate the immune system and induce haematopoiesis, data from controlled clinical trials are lacking.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of fever, nausea and vomiting, acute dysentery, jaundice, coughs, carbuncles and sores, and threatened abortion.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of allergies, arteriosclerosis, diarrhoea, dermatitis and hypertension.

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antihepatotoxic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antitumour, Antiviral, Immunomodulator, Platelet aggregation inhibition,

Human study
Immunomodulator

Adverse reactions
Rare gastrointestinal discomfort and diarrhoea are associated with oral administration of Radix Scutellariae. Although liver damage due to administration of the roots has been suggested, no direct correlations of ingestion of the roots to any published cases of liver damage have been published.

Contraindications
Owing to possible teratogenic and mutagenic effects, and a lack of safety data, use of Radix Scutellariae is contraindicated during pregnancy and nursing and in children under the age of 12 years.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous extract of Radix Scutellariae, 40.0 mg/plate, was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 (59, 60). However, intraperitoneal administration of 4.0 mg/kg bw of the aqueous extract to mice, equal to 10–40 times the amount used in humans, was mutagenic

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Intragastric administration of 500.0 mg/kg bw of a 70% methanol extract of the roots daily to rats starting on the 13th day of pregnancy had no teratogenic or abortifacient effects. An aqueous extract of the roots, 24.98 g/kg bw, given by intragastric administration to pregnant rats on days 8–18 of pregnancy was teratogenic.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
Intragastric administration of 24.98 g/kg bw of an aqueous extract of the roots to pregnant rabbits on days 8–18 of pregnancy had no abortifacient effects. A methanol extract of the roots, 1.0 mg/ml, inhibited oxytocininduced contractions in isolated rat uterus.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; or drug and laboratory test interactions.

Dosage forms
Dried roots, extracts, infusions and decoctions. Store in a well closed container in a cool, dry place, protected from moisture.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dose: 3–9 g of dried roots as an infusion or decoction

 

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