Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae/labiatae)
Scutellaria grandiflora Adams, S. lanceolaria Miq., S. macrantha Fisch.
Baical skullcap, huang chin, huang lien, huang qin, huangqin, hwanggum, hwang-keum,
Koganebana, skull cap, senohgon, whang-geum, whangegum, wogon
A spreading perennial herb up to 20–60 cm high. Stems erect, tetragonal,
branching near base, glabrous or pubescent in the stem margins. Leaves opposite,
simple, with short petioles 2 mm long; limb lanceolate, 1.5– 4.0 cm long,
5 mm wide; tip obtuse, entire. Flowers blue to purple, in racemes. Calyx campanulate,
bilabiate, the superior lip with a crest at the back; corolla tube long, much
longer than the calyx, enlarged towards the top, swelling at the base; limb
bilabiate; stamens four, didymous, fertile,ascending under the superior lip;
anthers ciliate; ovary superior. Fruits are collections of small tuberculate
nutlets, nearly globular, leathery
Plant material used
Contains not less than 9.0% of baicalin determined by high-performance liquid
chromatography. Other high-performance liquid chromatography methods are available
Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are flavonoids, chiefly baicalin (up to 14%), baicalein
(up to 5%), wogonin (0.7%) and wogonin-7-Oglucuronide (wogonoside, 4.0%)
Uses supported by clinical data
None. Although clinical case reports suggest that Radix Scutellariae may stimulate
the immune system and induce haematopoiesis, data from controlled clinical trials
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established
Treatment of fever, nausea and vomiting, acute dysentery, jaundice, coughs,
carbuncles and sores, and threatened abortion.
Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of allergies, arteriosclerosis, diarrhoea, dermatitis and hypertension.
Proven pharmacological activity
Antihepatotoxic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antitumour,
Antiviral, Immunomodulator, Platelet aggregation inhibition,
Rare gastrointestinal discomfort and diarrhoea are associated with oral administration
of Radix Scutellariae. Although liver damage due to administration of the roots
has been suggested, no direct correlations of ingestion of the roots to any
published cases of liver damage have been published.
Owing to possible teratogenic and mutagenic effects, and a lack of safety data,
use of Radix Scutellariae is contraindicated during pregnancy and nursing and
in children under the age of 12 years.
No information available.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous extract of Radix Scutellariae, 40.0 mg/plate, was not mutagenic in
the Salmonella/microsome assay in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 (59,
60). However, intraperitoneal administration of 4.0 mg/kg bw of the aqueous
extract to mice, equal to 10–40 times the amount used in humans, was mutagenic
Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Intragastric administration of 500.0 mg/kg bw of a 70% methanol extract of the
roots daily to rats starting on the 13th day of pregnancy had no teratogenic
or abortifacient effects. An aqueous extract of the roots, 24.98 g/kg bw, given
by intragastric administration to pregnant rats on days 8–18 of pregnancy
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
Intragastric administration of 24.98 g/kg bw of an aqueous extract of the roots
to pregnant rabbits on days 8–18 of pregnancy had no abortifacient effects.
A methanol extract of the roots, 1.0 mg/ml, inhibited oxytocininduced contractions
in isolated rat uterus.
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning
drug interactions; or drug and laboratory test interactions.
Dried roots, extracts, infusions and decoctions. Store in a well closed container
in a cool, dry place, protected from moisture.
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dose: 3–9 g of dried roots as an infusion or decoction