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Since May 10th 2008


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Sambucus nigra

Serenoa repens
Silybum marianum
Syzygium aromaticum
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria baicalensis
Sonchus arvensis


 

 

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Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae)

Synonyms
Sambucus arborescens Gilib., S. medullina Gilib., S. vulgaris Lam.

Local names
Aalhornblüten, aghti, agti, American elder bailasan, black elder, bodzavirág, bombardie, boumbardelia, boumbardier, bourtree flower, couloubrignier, elderberry, elder flowers, European elder, fiore di sambuco, fleurs de sureau, Fliederblüten, flor de sabugeiro, flores de sauco, flores sambuci, flos sambuci nigra, Holderblüten, Hollerblüten, Holunderblüten, Hüschenblumen, kabiu sabugah, Kalikenblumen, Khaman kabiv sabubah, okkez sidi musa, patlanguc, petadou, sabugeiro, sahuquier, sahus sambequie, sambuc, sambuco, sammuch, sammuco, sauci, saucio, sauco, sauguer, seic, seiyouniwatoko, sultanotu, sureau, sureau noir, sweet elder

Description
A shrub growing in moist soil with stems up to 4m high; contains abundant white pith. Leaves imparipinnate with 5–11 oblong, glabrous leaflets, the lower leaves often 3-lobed. Inflorescence a flat compound cyme. Flowers small, urnshaped, white, each with 5 minute calyx lobes; corolla 5-cleft gamopetalous, 5 stamens and a tricarpellate pistil with 3 stigmas. Fruits black-purple, edible, berry-like drupes

Plant material used
dried flowers

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 0.80% flavonoids, calculated as isoquercitrin, as determined by spectrophotometry at 425nm

Major chemical constituents
The major characteristic constituents (up to 3.0%) are the flavonoids (kaempferol, astragalin, quercetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside). Othermajor secondary metabolites include about 1% triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid), about 1% sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol), about 3% phenolic acids and their corresponding glycosides (chlorogenic, ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids), and up to 0.15% essential oil

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
As a diaphoretic for treatment of fever and chills, and as an expectorant for treatment of mild inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. Also for symptomatic treatment of the common cold.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of conjunctivitis, constipation, diabetes, diarrhoea, dry skin, headaches and rheumatism

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic

Human studies
Diaphoretic

Contraindications
No information available.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility; teratogenic and non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Flos Sambuci should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to children without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
No information available.

Dosage forms
Crude drug for decoctions and infusions (crude drug also available in tea bags); as a component of multi-ingredient products. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: crude drug 3–5 g as an infusion (preferably taken hot) three times daily; 25% ethanol extract 3–5 ml; tincture (1 :5 in 25% ethanol)

 

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