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Initial R



Rauvolfia serpentina
Rheum officinale
Rhamnus frangula
Rhamnus purshiana
Rehmannia glutinosa


 

 

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Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch (Scrophulariaceae)

Synonyms
Digitalis glutinosa Gaertn., Gerardia glutinosa Bunge, Rehmannia chinensis Libosch., R. sinensis (Buc’hoz) Libosch. ex Fisch. et C.A. Mey.

Local names
Akayajio, di-huang, cû sinh dja, dihuang, dihuáng, dja hoâng, figwort, ji-whang, rehmannia, sheng dihuang, sheng-ti-pien, shu di, sin dja, ti huang

Description
A perennial herb 10–40 cm high, with a thick, orange tuberous root, about 3–6 cm in diameter. Basal leaves fasciculate, obovate or long elliptic, 3– 10 cm long, 1.5–2.0 cm wide; apex obtuse; tapering to a short petiole, coarsely dentate, pubescent, the underside often reddish. Flowers are solitary, borne in leaf axils; calyx five-lobed, upper lobes longest; corolla obliquely funnel form, slightly swollen on lower side, about 4 cm long, dull purple-brown and creamy yellow, densely glandular-pubescent, twolipped; upper lobes shorter than the three lower lobes; tube with two ridges extending inside from sinuses of lower lip; four stamens borne near base of corolla, anthers not coherent, disc ring-like, poorly developed; ovary superior, stigma two-lobed. Fruits are capsules

Plant material used
dried roots and rhizomes

Chemical assays
To be established in accordance with national requirements.

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are iridoid monoterpenes (2.6–4.8%) including catalpol, ajugol, aucubin, rehmanniosides A–D, monomelittoside, melittoside, verbascoside, jionosides A1, A2, B1, B2, C, D and E. In addition, immunomodulating polysaccharides have also been reported

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None. Although published case reports indicate that Radix Rehmanniae is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension, data from controlled clinical trials are lacking.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Internally for the symptomatic treatment of fevers, diabetes, hypertension, skin eruptions and maculation, sore throat, hypermenorrhoea and polymenorrhoea. As a tonic to stimulate the immune system.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an antispasmodic, diuretic and emmenagogue. Treatment of burns, diarrhoea, dysentery, metrorrhagia and impotence

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antibacterial, Antidiarrhoeal, Antihepatotoxic, Antihyperglycaemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antitumour, Antiulcer, Central nervous system depressant, Immunomodulator, Platelet aggregation inhibition

Human study
Anti-inflammatory, Antihypercholestrolemic

Adverse reactions
Diarrhoea, abdominal pain, oedema, fatigue, vertigo and heart palpitations have been reported. However, these adverse effects were transient and disappeared within several days

Contraindications
Radix Rehmanniae is contraindicated in chronic liver or gastrointestinal diseases and in patients with diarrhoea. Owing to its potential antiimplantation effects, the use of Radix Rehmanniae during pregnancy is also contraindicated.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous extract of Radix Rehmanniae, 40.0–50.0 mg/plate, was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, and TA100 (56, 57). However, intraperitoneal administration of 4.0 mg/kg bw of the aqueous extract to mice, equal to 10–40 times the amount used in humans, was mutagenic. Intraperitoneal administration of a hot aqueous extract of the roots (dose not specified) to mice did not enhance cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal damage. Subcutaneous administration of a hot aqueous extract of the roots (dose not specified) inhibited embryonic implantation in treated female mice (55). No effects were observed after in vitro treatment of human sperm with an aqueous extract of the roots, 100.0 mg/ ml.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
No teratogenic or abortifacient effects were observed in rats following intragastric administration of 500.0 mg/kg bw of a 70% methanol extract of the roots starting on the 13th day of pregnancy.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
Owing to a lack of data on the safety and efficacy of Radix Rehmanniae, its use by nursing mothers is not recommended without supervision by a health-care provider.

Paediatric use
Owing to a lack of data on the safety and efficacy of Radix Rehmanniae, its use in children is not recommended without supervision by a healthcare provider.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; or drug and laboratory test interactions.

Dosage forms
ried roots and rhizomes for infusions and decoctions. Store in a well closed container in a cool, dry place, protected from light

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dose: 9–15 g of dried roots and rhizomes as an infusion or decoction

 

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