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Paeonia lactiflora
Panax ginseng
Plantago afra
Platycodon grandiflorum
Piper methysticum
Polygala senega
Prunus africana
Prunus armeniaca
Plantago ovata
Pimpinella anisum
Passiflora incarnata
Psidium guajava
Punica granatum


 

 

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Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)

Synonyms

Local names
Pomegranate, delima

Description
Shrub to small tree up to 6 m high. Leaves mostly opposite, short-petiolate, blades oblong-elliptical up to 8 cm long. Flowers showy and up to 6 cm broad, bisexual, 5-8 petals, reddish and up to 2.5 cm long, numerous stamens surrounding a conspicuous hypanthial tube, he flowers usually occuring terminally or in axils. Fruit a red spherical berry up to 13 cm broad, with a leathery rind enclosing numerous seeds surrounded by edible juicy, tart, bright red “kernels”. Flowers available during the summer, fruit following later in the year.

Plant material used
Fruit rind (choice), pericarp, root-bark, stem-bark,

Major chemical constituents
Apigenin glucoside, betulinic acid, callistephin, tannins, chrysanthemin, coniine, coumestrol, cyanidin and its diglucoside, cyanin, daidzein, daidzin, delphin, delphinidin and its glucosides, ellagic acid and its derivatives, estrone, friedelin, gallic acid, genistein, genistin, lipids, hygrine and norhygrine, luteolin glycosides, mannitol, pelargonin, pelletierine and its derivatives, piperidine derivatives, polyphenols, sedridine, xanthoxylin, estradiol.

Dosage forms
Fruit juice, stem-bark or root bark pulverized, pericarp pulverized

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Prostate cancer, diarrhea in AIDS patients (clinical)
Anti-inflammation, anticancer, cancer prevention (pre-clinical)

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Antibacterial, antiyeast, antigiardiasis, oestrogenic, anthelmintic, antiamebic, weak molluscicidal, antidiarrhoeal, cytotoxic, antifertility, uterine stimulant, antiviral, hypoglycemic, hypothermic, antiascariasis, plaque formation suppression, diuretic and antiuremic.

Uses described in traditional medicine
A decoction of the seed is used to treat syphilis. Juice of the fruit is used to treat jaundice and diarrhoea. The rind of the fruit is ground in water and drunk every morning by diabetics. The fruit together with the juice of Cynodon dactylon leaves is used for runny noses and colds. The juice of the flowers is used to treat nose bleeds. The fruit pulp and the seed are a stomachic. The root and stem bark have astringent and anthelmintic properties.

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antioxidant, antibacterial, antiyeast, antigiardiasis, oestrogenic, anthelmintic, antiamoebic, weak molluscicidal, antidiarrhoeal, cytotoxic, antifertility, uterine stimulant, antiviral, hypoglycemic, hypothermic, antiascariasis, plaque formation suppression, diuretic and antiuremic.

Human studies
Prostate cancer (clinical), anti-inflammation, anticancer, cancer prevention (pre-clinical)

Toxicity
The LD50 of the fruit extract, determined in OF-1 mice of both sexes after intraperitoneal administration, was 731 mg/kg

Contraindications
Root-bark, stem-bark, and seed of P. granatum are highly toxic, so it must be use with extreme caution not to be used during pregnancy, lactation, and for children

Warnings
See contraindication

Precautions
Drug interactions
No data available

Laboratory test interactions
No data available

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis
Non mutagenic nor carcinogenic

Pregnancy
Root-bark, stem-bark of P. granatum are highly toxic, so it must be use with extreme caution not to be used during pregnancy, lactation, and for children

Nursing mothers
Root-bark, stem-bark of P. granatum are highly toxic, so it must be use with extreme caution not to be used during pregnancy, lactation, and for children

Paediatric use
No data available

Adverse reactions
Fruit juice considered safe, if any, gastric inflammation,

Posology
The root bark and stem bark are employed in the therapy of taeniasis, in a daily dose of 20 -50 g og dried root-bark or stem-bark in the form of decoction, or 0.30 g of pelletrine combined with 0.40 g of tannin, divided into 3 subdoses The fruit rind is effective for dysentery and diarrhea, in a dose of 15-20 g/day in decoction form.
8 oz juce daily for cancer treatment or prevention

 

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