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Since May 10th 2008

Initial P

Paeonia lactiflora
Panax ginseng
Plantago afra
Platycodon grandiflorum
Piper methysticum
Polygala senega
Prunus africana
Prunus armeniaca
Plantago ovata
Pimpinella anisum
Passiflora incarnata
Psidium guajava
Punica granatum



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Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae)


Local names
Guava, jambu biji , ku’ava, kuava (Tonga), vi papalagi, kautonga, tuava, quwawa, amrud, amrut

Shrub or small tree to 10 m high with thin, smooth, patchy, peeling bark. Leaves opposite, short-petiolate, the blade oval with prominent pinnate veins, 5-15 cm long. Flowers somewhat showy, 4-5- merous, petals whitish and up to 2 cm long, stamens numerous. Fruit a fleshy yellow globose to ovoid berry about 5 cm in diameter with an edible pink mesocarp containing numerous small hard white seeds.

Plant material used

Major chemical constituents
The fruits contain vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, calcium and phosphorus. Guavas are up to 5 times richer in vitamin C than oranges [Conway]. Manganese is also present in the plant in combination with phosphoric, oxalic and malic acids [Nadkarni & Nadkarni]. The fruit contains saponin combined with oleanolic acid. Morin-3-O-a-L-lyxopyranoside and morin-3-O-a-L-arabopyranoside and flavonoids, guaijavarin and quercetin The essential oil and headspace of fresh white-flesh guava fruits. In the headspace, the major constituents were: hexanal (65.9%), ?-b(7.6%), (E)-2-hexenal (7.4%), (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal (2.2%), (Z)-3-hexenal (2%), (Z)-2-hexenal (1%), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (1.3%) and phenol (1.6%), while ß-caryophyllene (24.1%), nerolidol (17.3%3-phenylpropyl acetate (5.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.1%) were the major volatile constituents present in the hydrodistilled essential oil [Paniandy et al]occurrence of pentane-2-thiol was found in the fruits alcohols, estersaldehydes, whereas in the fresh fruit puree t rpenic hydrocarbons and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were the most abundant components. New components were described forthe first time as active aromatic constituents in pink guava fruit (3-penten-2-ol and 2-butenyl acetate). Principal differences between the aroma of the commercial guava essence and the fresh fruit puree could be related to acetic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butano3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, limonene, octanol, ethyl octanoate, 3-phenylpropanol, cinnamyl alcohol, a-copaene, and an unknown component.
The fruit skin contain: ascorbic acid–mainly in the skin, secondly in the firm flesh, and little in the central pulp–varies from 56 to 600 mg. and may range to 350-450 mg in nearly ripe fruit. It can decline to 50- 100 mg. Canning or other heat processing destroys about 50% of the ascorbic acid. The strong odour of the fruit is attributed to carbonyl compounds.
The Leaves contain: fixed oil 6%, and volatile oil 0.365%a-pinene, ß-pinene, limonene, menthol, terpenyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol, longicyclene, caryophyllene, ß-bisabolene, caryophyllene oxide, ß-copanene, farnesene, humulene, selinene, cardinene and curcumene. The essential oil from the leaves has been sto contain, nerolidiol, ß-sitosterol, ursolic, crategolic, and guayavolic acids have also been identified 3.15% resin, 8.5% tannin, and a number of other fixed substances. The essential oil contains eugenol, mallic acid and tannin from 8-15%. The fruit co4.3%, saccharose 1.62% - 3.4%, protein 0.3%, etc.; and the ash yields 75% of CaCO3.Leaves contain resin, fat, cellulose, tannin, volatile oil, chlorophyll and mineral salts. In addition, the leaves contain an essential oil rich in cineoland four triterpenic acids as well as three flavonoids; quercetin, its 3-L-4-4-arabinofuranoside (avicularin) and its 3-L-4-pyranoside with strong antibacterial action. Essential oil of the leaves contain: caryophyllene (18.81%), copaene (11.80%), [1aR-(1a a-, 4a a-, 7 a-, 7aß-, 7b a-)]-decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene 1H-cycloprop[e] azulene(10.27%). Guajavolid (2 a-,3 ß-,6 ß-,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28,20 ß-olide; 1) and guavenoic acid (2 a-,3 ß-,6 ß-,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid; 2) along with one known triterpene oleanolic acid were isolated from the fresh leaves of Psidium guajava.
The bark contain: 12-30% of tannin and one source says it contains tannin 27.4%, or polyphenols [Burkill], resin and crystals of calcium oxalate
The roots contain: tannin, leukocyanidins, sterols, and gallic acid in the roots. There is a high percentage of carbohydrates and salts. Root, stem-bark and leaves contain a large percentage of tannic acid.
The seeds contain: 14% oil on dry weight, with 15% proteins and 13% starch. Ten phenolic and flavonoid compounds including one new acylated flavonol glycosidewere isolated. The structures of the new compound quercetin-3-O-ß-D-(2"-O-galloyglucoside)-4'-O-vinylpropionate and of the known compounds were elucidated
The twigs contain: calcium (0.30-1.00%), magnesium (0.06-0.30%), phosphorous (0.10-0.38%), potassium (0.21-0.39%), and sodium (0.03-0.20%). The concentration of fluoride ranged from 0.02 to 0.11 ppm, copper (0.02-0.14 ppm), iron (2.86-5.14 ppzinc (0.31-0.57 ppm), manganese (0.00-0.26 ppm), and lead (0.00-0.11 ppm).

Dosage forms
Dried leaves pulverized

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Acute infectious diarrhea, infantile rotaviral enteritis, infectious gastroenteritis.
Fruit has anticholesterol effect

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Antidiabetic (pedunculagin, strictinin, and isostrictinin from leaves), anticholinergic, smooth muscle relaxant, antimutagenic, hypoglycemic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiyeast, antilipolytic, spasmogenic, cytotoxic, spasmolytic, antimycobacterial, anti-malarial, antigonadotropin, analgesic, antiinflammatory.

Uses described in traditional medicine
In Fiji, juice from the leaves is used for treating diarrhoea, coughs, stomachache and dysentery. The leaves are pounded, squeezed in salt water and the solution is used to treat toothaches. An infusion of the leaves and roots is used to treat indigestion. The fruit is eaten to cure constipation.
Tahitians use the plant in a treatment for a skin tonic, as well as for painful menstruation, miscarriages, uterine bleeding and premature labour in women.
In Tahiti and Samoa, the shoots are made into a paste and applied to wounds to prevent bleeding.
Tongans also use the leaves to treat stomachache.
In New Guinea, a boiled preparation of the leaves is used to treat itchy rashes caused by scabies. A similar practice is known in Samoa.
In Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Futuna, Tahiti, and other tropical Asian countries, the plant is used in treating digestive tract problems.
Cook Islanders use the plant to treat sores, boils, cuts and sprains. In the Cook Islands, new mothers are bathed in a warm infusion of guava leaves.

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antibacterial, Antidiarrheic, Anti-HIV, Antimutagenic, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Astringent, Candidicide, Expectorant, Hemostat, Hypoglycemic, Radioprotective, Sedative, Vasoconstrictor

Human studies
Antidiarrhea, Antibacterial, Increase trombocyte production

Considered safe, acute toxicity tests in rats and mice have proven the LD 50 of guava leaf extracts to be more than 5 g/kg

No data available

Do not use more than 30 consecutive days

Drug interactions
No data available

Laboratory test interactions
No data available

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis
Non mutagenic nor carcinogenic

No data available, not to be used for children or pregnant or lactating women

Nursing mothers
No data available, not to be used for children or pregnant or lactating women

Paediatric use
No data available

Adverse reactions
May cause constipation

For treatment of diarrhea. 10 gram of fresh leaves, washed and crushed finely. Add 100 ml of boiled water, let cool, filter with clean cloth, then drink as one dose


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