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Paeonia lactiflora
Panax ginseng
Plantago afra
Platycodon grandiflorum
Piper methysticum
Polygala senega
Prunus africana
Prunus armeniaca
Plantago ovata
Pimpinella anisum
Passiflora incarnata
Psidium guajava
Punica granatum


 

 

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Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae)

Synonyms
Anisum offi cinarum Moench, A. vulgare Gaertn., Apium anisum (L.) Crantz, Carum anisum (L.) Baill., Pimpinella anisum cultum Alef., P. aromatica Bieb., Selinum anisum (L.) E.H.L. Krause, Sison anisum Spreng., Tragium anisum Link

Local names
Anacio, Änes, Aneis, anice, anice verde, Anis, anisbibernelle, anis verde, anis vert, anise, anisoon, anisum, ánizs, anizsolaj, annsella, badian, badian rumi, boucage, boucage anis, Grüner Anis, habbat hlawa, jintan manis, jinten manis, petit anis, pimpinelle, razianag, razianaj, roomy, saunf, sweet cumin, yansoon

Description
An aromatic annual herb, up to 60 cm high with an erect, cylindrical, striated, smooth stem. Leaves alternate below, opposite above, the lower being long-petioled, ovate–orbicular, dentate, the upper with short dilated petioles, pinnatifi d or ternately pinnate with long, entire or cut cuneate segments. Inflorescence long-stalked, compound umbel with 8–14 rays; flowers small, white, each on a long hairy pedicel. Fruit comprises a mouse-shaped cremocarp with a small stylopod and two minutely pubescent mericarps that do not readily separate from the carpophore.

Plant material used
essential oil

Chemical assays
Contains 0.1–1.5% linalool, 0.5–6.0% methylchavicol, 0.1–1.5% α-terpineol, < 0.5% cis-anethole, 84–93% trans-anethole, 0.1–3.5% p-anisaldehyde

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are trans-anethole (84–93%), cis-anethole (< 0.5%), methylchavicol (estragole, isoanethole; 0.5–6.0%), linalool (0.1–1.5%) and p-anisaldehyde (0.1–3.5%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of dyspepsia and mild inflammation of the respiratory tract.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an aphrodisiac, carminative, emmenagogue, galactagogue and insecticide. Treatment of chronic bronchitis

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antimicrobial, Anticonvulsant, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic , Bronchodilatory, Estrogenic, Expectorant, Liver regenerative

Adverse reactions
Contact dermatitis was reported in a cake factory worker after external exposure to a 5% concentration of Aetheroleum Anisi. Occasional allergic reactions to the oil affecting the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract are reported. Inhalation of powdered Fructus Anisi induced an allergic effect in one subject with asthma. Skin-prick tests showed a positive reaction to the fruits and the patient had high specifi c anti-aniseed immunoglobulin E antibodies in his blood. Anethole toxicity in infants has been reported, and presents clinically with symptoms of hypertonia, continued crying, atypical ocular movements, twitching, cyanosis, vomiting and lack of appetite. Ingestion of 1.0–5.0 ml of the oil can result in nausea, vomiting, seizures and pulmonary oedema. In cases of overdose (> 50 mg/kg), the ingestion of milk and alcohol is contraindicated owing to increased resorption. Contraindications Aetheroleum Anisi is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to aniseed and anethole. Owing to the traditional use of the oil as an emmenagogue and to induce labour, its experimental estrogenic and potential mutagenic effects, and reports of anethole toxicity in infants, use of the oil in pregnancy and nursing, and in children under the age of 12 years is contraindicated.

Warnings
Applications of Aetheroleum Anisi should be limited to inhalation therapy.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Inconsistent results have been reported concerning the mutagenicity of trans-anethole in the Salmonella/microsome assay. One group showed that anethole was mutagenic, another that it was very weakly mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA1535, TA100 and TA98. In a further study, trans-anethole (concentrations not specifi ed) did not increase the mutant frequency in the Salmonella/microsome assay, but did increase mutant frequency in the L5178Y mouse-lymphoma TK+/- assay in a dose-dependent manner, with metabolic activation. Trans-anethole did not induce chromosome aberrations in vitro in the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay. Trans-anethole was weakly hepatocarcinogenic in female rats when administered at a dose of 1% in the diet for 121 weeks; however, this effect is not mediated by a genotoxic event. Trans-anethole was investigated for its antifertility activity in rats, after intragastric administration of doses of 50.0 mg/kg bw, 70.0 mg/kg bw and 80.0 mg/kg bw. Anti-implantation activity of 100% was observed in animals treated with the highest dose. The compound has been reported to show estrogenic, antiprogestational, androgenic and antiandrogenic activities.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; and teratogenic effects in pregnancy.

Dosage forms
Essential oil. Preparations containing 5–10% essential oil for inhalation are also available. Store in a well-fi lled, tightly sealed container, protected from light and heat.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Average daily dose for internal use: essential oil 0.3 g; equivalent for other preparations



Plant material used
dried ripe fruits (Fructus Anisi)

Chemical assays
Contains 0.1–1.5% linalool, 0.5–6.0% methylchavicol, 0.1–1.5% a-terpineol, < 0.5% cis-anethole, 84–93% trans-anethole, 0.1–3.5% p-anisaldehyde

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are trans-anethole (84–93%), cis-anethole (< 0.5%), methylchavicol (estragole, isoanethole; 0.5–6.0%), linalool (0.1–1.5%) and p-anisaldehyde (0.1–3.5%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of dyspepsia and mild inflammation of the respiratory tract.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an aphrodisiac, carminative, emmenagogue, galactagogue and insecticide. Treatment of chronic bronchitis

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Analgesic and central nervous system activity, Antimicrobial, Anticonvulsant, Anti-inflammatory, Bronchodilator, Hypotensive, Platelet aggregation inhibition, Smooth muscle stimulant

Adverse reactions
Occasional allergic reactions to Fructus Anisi affecting the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract have been reported (14). Inhalation of powdered fruits induced an allergic effect in one subject with asthma. Skin-prick tests showed a positive reaction and the patient had a high level of specific anti-aniseed immunoglobulin E antibodies in his blood. Anethole toxicity in infants has been reported, and presents clinically with symptoms of hypertonia, continued crying, atypical ocular movements, twitching, cyanosis, vomiting and lack of appetite.

Contraindications
Fructus Anisi is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to aniseed and anethole. Owing to the traditional use of the oil as an emmenagogue and to induce labour, its experimental estrogenic and potential mutagenic effects, and reports of anethole toxicity in infants, use of the dried fruits in pregnancy and nursing, and in children under the age of 12 years is contraindicated.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
A 95% ethanol extract of Fructus Anisi, 10.0 mg/plate, was inactive in the Salmonella/microsome assay in S. typhimurium TA102. Inconsistent results have been reported concerning the mutagenicity of anethole in this assay. One group showed that it was mutagenic, another that it was not mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA1535, TA100 and TA98. In a further study, trans-anethole (concentration not specified) did not increase the mutant frequency in the Salmonella/microsome assay, but did increase mutant frequency in the L5178Y mouse-lymphoma TK+/- assay in a dose-dependent manner, with metabolic activation. Transanethole did not induce chromosome aberrations in vitro in the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay. Trans-anethole was weakly hepatocarcinogenic in female rats when administered at a dose of 1% in the diet for 121 weeks; however, this effect is not mediated by a genotoxic event. Trans-anethole was investigated for its antifertility activity in rats, after intragastric administration of doses of 50.0 mg/kg bw, 70.0 mg/kg bw and 80.0 mg/kg bw. Anti-implantation activity of 100% was observed in animals treated with the highest dose. The compound has been reported to show estrogenic, antiprogestational, androgenic and antiandrogenic activities.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; or teratogenic effects in pregnancy.

Dosage forms
Powdered dried fruits for oral infusions and other galenical preparations for internal use or inhalation. Store in a well-closed container, protected from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Average oral daily dose for internal use: Fructus Anisi 3.0 g; equivalent for other preparations

 

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