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Paeonia lactiflora
Panax ginseng
Plantago afra
Platycodon grandiflorum
Piper methysticum
Polygala senega
Prunus africana
Prunus armeniaca
Plantago ovata
Pimpinella anisum
Passiflora incarnata
Psidium guajava
Punica granatum


 

 

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Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae)

Synonyms
Granadilla incarnata Medik., Passiflora kerii Spreng.

Local names
Apricot vine, flor de la pasión, Fleischfarbene Passionsblume, fiore della passione, fleur de la passion, grenadille, maracujá, may apple, may flower, may-pop, pasionaria, passiflora, passiflora roja, passiflore, passion vine, rose-coloured passion flower, water lemon, white passion flower, wild passion flower

Description
A perennial, creeping herb, climbing by means of axillary tendrils. Leaves alternate, palmately three to five serrate lobes. Flowers large, solitary, with long peduncles, whitish, with a triple purple and pink crown. Fruits are ovate berries containing numerous ovoid, flattened seeds covered with a yellowish or brownish aril

Plant material used
dried aerial parts

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 1.5% of total flavonoids, expressed as vitexin, determined by spectrophotometry. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for flavonoids is also available

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are flavonoids (up to 2.5%) with the principal compounds being the C-glycosyl of apigenin (R2 = H) and luteolin (R2 = OH), including mono-C-glucosyl derivatives isovitexin (up to 0.32%), iso-orientin and their 2''-ß-d-glycosides, and di-C-glycosyl derivatives schaftoside (up to 0.25%), isoschaftoside (up to 0.15%) and swertisin. Also found are di-C-glucosyl derivatives vicenin-2 and lucenin-2 and small amounts of mono-C-glucosyl derivatives orientin and vitexin. Other chemical constituents include maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-γ-pyrone) (0.05%), chrysin and a cyanogenic glycoside, gynocardin. Traces of the indole (ß-carboline) alkaloids (e.g. harman, harmol, harmine) have been reported in the source plants; however, these alkaloids are undetectable in most commercial materials

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Internally as a mild sedative for nervous restlessness, insomnia and anxiety. Treatment of gastrointestinal disorders of nervous origin.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an anodyne, antispasmodic and mild stimulant. Treatment of dysmenorrhoea, neuralgia and nervous tachycardia

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Analgesic and antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Central nervous system depressant, Uterine stimulant

Human studies
No clinical data available for mono-preparations of Herba Passiflorae.

Adverse reactions
A single case of hypersensitivity with cutaneous vasculitis and urticaria following ingestion of tablets containing an extract of Herba Passiflorae was reported. In one case, use of the aerial parts was associated with IgE-mediated occupational asthma and rhinitis. A single case of severe nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, prolonged QT segment and episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was reported in a female subject after self-administration of a therapeutic dose of the aerial parts. However, the clinical significance of this reaction has not been evaluated.

Contraindications
Herba Passiflorae has been shown to stimulate uterine contractions in animal models. Its use is therefore contraindicated during pregnancy.

Warnings
May cause drowsiness. The ability to drive a car or operate machinery may be impaired.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
A fluidextract of Herba Passiflorae was not genotoxic at concentrations up to 1.3 mg/ml in Aspergillus nidulans, as assessed in a plate incorporation assay that permitted the detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome mal-segregation or clastogenic effects. No significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony were observed at any tested dose.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
Owing to the lack of data concerning its safety and efficacy, Herba Passiflorae should not be used by nursing mothers without consulting a health-care practitioner.

Paediatric use
Owing to the lack of data concerning its safety and efficacy, Herba Passiflora should not be administered to children without consulting a healthcare practitioner

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; or teratogenic effects in pregnancy.

Dosage forms
Powdered dried aerial parts, capsules, extracts, fluid extract and tinctures. Store in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dose, adults: as a sedative: 0.5–2.0 g of aerial parts three to four times; 2.5 g of aerial parts as an infusion three to four times; 1.0–4.0 ml tincture (1:8) three to four times; other equivalent preparations accordingly

 

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