WELCOME

You're visitor number free hit counters login pageVisit the web design companies directory.

Since May 10th 2008


Initial M



Melaleuca alternifolia

Melissa officinalis
Mentha x piperita
Murraya paniculata


 

 

Herb`s Initial
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Click one of the letter above, then click on one of the herb on the left panel
or type a keyword below, and hit search button

 



Mentha x piperita L. (Lamiaceae)

Synonyms
Mentha piperita (L.) Huds., M. piperita Stokes, M. balsamea Willd.

Local names
Amentha, american mint, balm mint, brandy mint, cabra-caa, curled mint, doun menta piperita, hierbabuena, hortela pimenta, Katzenkraut, lamb mint, la menta, lamint, menta piemonte, mentea peperina, mentha pepe, menthe, menthe anglaise, menthe poivrée, moto yuyo, nána, ni naa, ni’na el fulfully, pepermin, pepper mint, peppermint, Pfefferminze, Pfefferminzblätter, piperita, pudeena, pum hub, yerba mota

Description
A perennial herb, 30–90 cm high. Stems square erect or ascending, branched, the upper portion always quadrangular. Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovateoblong to oblong-lanceolate, serrate, pointed; dark green on the upper surface. Flowers purplish, occur in thick, terminal, spicoid racemes of verticillasters; each flower shows a tubular calyx with 5 sharp, hairy teeth, a purplish, irregular, 4-cleft corolla, 4 short stamens, a 4-celled ovary and a projecting style ending in a bifid stigma. Fruit consists of 4 ellipsoidal nutlets

Plant material used
essential oil

Chemical assays
The monoterpene content determined by gas chromatography should be 1,8- cineole (6–14%), limonene (1–5%), menthone (14–32%), menthofuran (1–9%), isomenthone (2–10%), menthyl acetate (3–5%), menthol (30–55%), pulegone (not more than 4.0%) and carvone (not more than 1.0%). The ratio of 1,8- cineole to limonene should be greater than 2.0

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). Menthol occurs mostly in the free alcohol form, with small quantities as the acetate (3–5%) and valerate esters. Other monoterpenes present include isomenthone (2–10%), 1,8-cineole (6–14%), α-pinene (1.0–1.5%), β-pinene (1–2%), limonene (1–5%), neomenthol (2.5–3.5%) and menthofuran (1–9%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Internally for symptomatic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, and digestive disorders such as flatulence and gastritis. Externally for treatment of myalgia and headache.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Internally and externally for the symptomatic treatment of catarrh and coughs.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of dysentery, diabetes, dysmenorrhoea, fevers, jaundice and urinary infections

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antimicrobial, Antispasmodic, Antifoaming

Human studies
Antispasmodic, Dyspepsia, Analgesic

Toxicology
Intragastric administration of the essential oil (100mg/kg body weight) to rats daily for 28 days induced histopathological changes (scattered cyst-like spaces) in the white matter of the cerebellum. No behavioural or clinical symptoms due to the encephalopathy were observed

Contraindications
Preparations of Aetheroleum Menthae Piperitae should not be used internally by patients with inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract or gall bladder, or with impaired liver function. Hypersensitivity to the essential oil has been reported.

Warnings
Aetheroleum Menthae Piperitae preparations should not be applied to the face, especially the nose, of infants or young children. Keep out of reach of children.

Precautions
General
Patients with achlorhydria (due to medication with histamine H2 receptor antagonists) should only use enteric-coated preparations.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Aetheroleum Menthae Piperitae was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA1535.

Paediatric use
No information available. Therefore, Aetheroleum Menthae Piperitae should not be administered to children without medical supervision. (See also Contraindications and Warnings.)

Other precautions
No information available on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic and non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy; or nursing mothers. Therefore, Aetheroleum Menthae Piperitae should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
Following internal administration of Aetheroleum Menthae Piperitae, gastric complaints have been reported in individuals sensitive to the essential oil. The use of non-enteric-coated essential oil preparations has occasionally causedheartburn, especially in patients suffering from reflux oesophagitis (58). Skin rashes, headache, heartburn, perianal burning, bradycardia, muscle tremors and ataxia have been reported as rare side-effects, usually associated with overdose. Recurrent muscle pain has been associated with the ingestion of the essential oil. Following external administration of Aetheroleum Menthae Piperitae, skin irritation has been reported.

Dosage forms
Essential oil, concentrated peppermint emulsion, peppermint spirit and other galenic preparations . Store in a well-closed container, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Internal use
For digestive disorders, daily dosage: 0.2–0.4 ml essential oil three times daily in dilute preparations or suspensions. By inhalation: 3–4 drops essential oil in hot water. Lozenges: 2–10 mg essential oil per lozenge. For irritable bowel syndrome, daily dosage: 0.2–0.4 ml essential oil three times daily in enteric-coated capsules.
External use
5–20% essential oil in dilute, semisolid or oily preparations; 5–10% essential oil in aqueous-ethanol; nasal ointments containing 1–5% crude drug


Plant material used
dried leaves

Chemical assays
Whole and cut leaves contain not less than 1.2% and 0.9% (v/w) essential oil, respectively, determined as described in the European pharmacopoeia

Major chemical constituents
The major constituent of the leaves is the essential oil (0.5–4%), which contains menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). Menthol occurs mostly in the free alcohol form, with small quantities as the acetate (3–5%) and valerate esters. Other monoterpenes present include isomenthone (2–10%), 1,8-cineole (6–14%), α-pinene (1.0–1.5%), β-pinene (1–2%), limonene (1–5%), neomenthol (2.5–3.5%) and menthofuran (1–9%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Symptomatic treatment of dyspepsia, flatulence and intestinal colic.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an emmenagogue, vermifuge, lactation enhancer and sedative. Also used to treat bronchitis, bacillary dysentery, diabetes, diarrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, fevers, hypertension, jaundice, nausea, pain, and respiratory and urinary tract infections

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antimicrobial, Antispasmodic, Choleretic, Anti-oedema, Analgesic

Toxicology
Intragastric administration of a leaf extract (50 g leaves infused with 500 ml hot water for 10 minutes, then spray-dried) to 12 mice (4 g/kg body weight as a single dose) did not result in central nervous system depression, toxic effects or mortality

Contraindications
No information available.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
General
Patients with gallstones should not use Folium Menthae Piperitae unless under medical supervision

Other precautions
No information available on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility; teratogenic and non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Folium Menthae Piperitae should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to children without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
No information available.

Dosage forms
Dried leaves. Tincture and infusions. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: 1–3 g crude drug three times daily. Infusion: pour 150ml hot water over 1.5–3.0 g (one tablespoon) dried leaves, steep for 10 minutes, strain and drink three times daily between meals. Tincture: 2–3ml (1 : 5, 45% ethanol) three times daily

 

Herbal products and services


 

 

 

 

 

Copyright GREEN RING SOCIETY 2008