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Melaleuca alternifolia

Melissa officinalis
Mentha x piperita
Murraya paniculata


 

 

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Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae)

Synonims
Calamintha officinalis Moench., Melissa graveolens Host, Thymus melissa E.H.L. Krause

Local names
Alahana, appiastro, badarendjabouya, badranjbuyeh, balm, balm mint, bee balm, blue balm, cedronella, citromfülevél, citronelle, citrounado, citrounela, citrounelo, common balm, cure-all, dropsy plant, erva-cidreira-miuda-de-folha, folia citronellae, franjmeshk, garden-balm, Herzkraut, hhashyshat ennahhl, honey plant, lemon balm, limiera, limouna, limounneta, mallisa, melissa, Melisse, Melissenblätter, Melissenkraut, melisso, melliss, ponciarada, pouncinado, idrunmeliss, sweet balm, toronjil, toronjil-cidrado, touroudjan, turungan, Zitronenkraut, Zitronenmelisse

Description
An odorous perennial herb, 0.3–0.9 m high, usually with several stems, lemonscented on bruising. Stems obtusely quadrangular, furrowed pubescent. Leaves 2–9cm long and 1–5 cm wide, ovate to obovate-oval, base cuneate truncate or cordate at the base, densely pilose on both surfaces, petiole 0.2–3.5 cm long. Corolla white or pinkish; infundibuliform tube 8–12 mm long; stamens inserted deep in the tube; bracteoles oval-oblong, about 1.5 cm long, pubescent; calyx 5–9mm long, pubescent outside, pubescent inside (with very short hairs), densely pilose in the middle

Plant material used
dried leaves

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 4.0% total hydroxycinnamic acids calculated as rosmarinic acid. Quantitative analysis is performed by spectrophotometry at 505nm. Essential oil analysis is carried out according to the method described in the European pharmacopoeia

Major chemical constituents
The major characteristic constituents are the hydroxycinnamic acids (rosmarinic [up to 6%], p-coumaric, caffeic and chlorogenic acids), and an essential oil (0.02–0.37%) composed of more than 40% monoterpenes and more than 35% sesquiterpenes. The most significant terpenoid components are citral (a mixture of the isomers neral and geranial), citronellal, geraniol, nerol, linalool, farnesyl acetate, humulene (α-caryophyllene), β-caryophyllene and eremophilene. Other constituents include flavonoids, tannins and acidic triterpenes (e.g. ursolic and oleanolic acids)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Externally, for symptomatic treatment of herpes labialis.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Orally as a carminative for gastrointestinal disorders, and as a sedative for treatment of nervous disturbances of sleep

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of amenorrhoea, asthma, bee stings, coughs, dizziness, dysmenorrhoea, migraine headaches, tachycardia, toothache, tracheobronchitis and urinary incontinence

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antiviral, Antispasmodic, Tranquilizer

Human studies
Herpes simplex

Contraindications
External use: none. Internal use: see Precautions.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
A tincture of Folium Melissae was not mutagenic in vitro and alcohol extracts had antimutagenic activity in vitro.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally during pregnancy without medical supervision.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally during pregnancy without medical supervision.

Nursing mothers
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally during lactation without medical supervision.

Paediatric use
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally to children without medical supervision.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; or drug and laboratory test interactions; pregnancy.

Adverse reactions
No information available.

Dosage forms
Comminuted crude drug; powder, tea bags, dried and fluidextracts for infusions and other galenical preparations. Store in a tightly closed container, protected from light. Do not store in plastic containers.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage for oral administration (for gastrointestinal disorders and as a sedative for nervous disturbances of sleep). Infusion: 1.5–4.5 g crude drug per cup several times daily as needed; 45% alcohol extract (1 : 1): 2–4 ml three times daily; tincture (1 :5 in 45% alcohol): 2–6 ml three times daily. Daily dosage for topical application (for herpes labialis). Cream containing 1% of a lyophilized aqueous extract applied 2–4 times daily from the appearance of prodromal signs to a few days after the healing of the lesions, for a maximum of 14 days

 

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