Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel (Myrtaceae)
No information available.
Australian tea tree, tea tree
A narrow-leaved tree not exceeding 6 m. Entire plant glabrous; leaves alternate.
Flowers scattered in an interrupted spike; stamens more than 12mm long united
at their bases to form 5 distinct bundles; capsule persisting within fruiting
Plant material used
Contains not less than 30% (w/w) of terpinen-4-ol (4-terpineol) and not more
than 15% (w/w) of 1,8-cineole (also known as cineol, cineole or eucalyptol).
The oil must contain: not less than 3.5% sabine; 1–6% α-terpinene;
10–28% γ-terpinene; 0.5–12.0% p-cymene; not less than 30% terpinen-4-ol;
and 1.5–8.0% a-terpineol, as measured by gas chromatography
Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are terpinen-4-ol (29–45%), g-terpinene (10–28%),
a-terpinene (2.7–13.0%) and 1,8-cineole (4.5–16.5%). Other mono-terpenes
present in significant quantities (1–5%) include a-pinene, limonene, p-cymene
Uses supported by clinical data
Topical application for symptomatic treatment of common skin disorders such
as acne, tinea pedis, bromidrosis, furunculosis, and mycotic onychia (onychomycosis),
and of vaginitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis or Candida albicans, cystitis
in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
As an antiseptic and disinfectant for the treatment of wounds.
in traditional medicine
Symptomatic treatment of burns, colitis, coughs and colds, gingivitis, impetigo,
nasopharyngitis, psoriasis, sinus congestion, stomatitis and tonsillitis
Proven pharmacological activity
Vaginitis and cervicitis, Cystitis, Acne, Foot problems
The dermal median lethal dose (LD50) of the essential oil in rabbits is >5.0mg/kg
body weight, since 5.0mg/kg resulted in the deaths of two out of 10 treated
rabbits. The oral LD50 in rats is 1.9g/kg body weight (range of doses 1.4–
2.7 g/kg). The signs of severe toxicity are respiratory distress, and coma with
diarrhoea. A few cases of toxicosis after topical application of high doses
of the essential oil to dogs and cats have been reported. Symptoms included
central nervous system depression, weakness, and lack of coordination and muscle
tremors that were resolved within 2–3 days after supportive treatment
Aetheroleum Melaleucae Alternifoliae is contraindicated in cases of known allergy
to plants of the Myrtaceae family.
Not for internal use. Keep out of reach of children (see Adverse reactions).
No information available on general precautions or precautions
concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; carcinogenesis,
mutagenesis, impairment of fertility; teratogenic and non-teratogenic effects
in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Aetheroleum Melaleucae
Alternifoliae should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to
children without medical supervision.
Allergic contact dermatitis after external application and ingestion of Aetheroleum
Melaleucae Alternifoliae has been reported. No adverse reactions were reported
in two patch tests using preparations containing up to 5% essential oil (45,
46). Accidental ingestion of 10 ml essential oil caused confusion, disorientation
and loss of coordination in a 23-month-old child. Ingestion of 2.5 ml essential
oil by a 60-year-old man resulted in a severe rash and a general feeling of
malaise. Induction of a comatose state lasting 12 hours, followed by 36 hours
of a semi-conscious state accompanied by hallucinations, was reported in one
patient after ingestion of approximately half a cup (120 ml) of the essential
oil. Abdominal pain and diarrhoea lasting up to 6 weeks were also reported.
Essential oil. Store in a well-filled, airtight container, protected from heat
(Unless otherwise indicated)
External application of the essential oil at concentrations of 5–100%,
depending on the skin disorder being treated