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Lavandula angustifolia


 

 

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Lavandula angustifolia Mill.
Related species often used interchangeably is L. intermedia Loisel (Lamiaceae)

Synonyms
Lavandula officinalis Chaix, L. spica Loisel., L. vera DC., L. vulgaris Lam. (5–8). Lamiaceae are also known as Labiatae. In most formularies and older reference books, Lavandula officinalis Chaix is regarded as the correct species name. However, according to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, Lavendula angustifolia Mill. is the legitimate name for the species

Local names
Al birri, alhucema, arva neh, aspic, broad-leaved lavenda, common lavender, Echter Lavendel, English lavender, espi, espic, espliego commún, firigla, frigous, garden lavendar, grando, hanan, hanene, hzama, khazama, khirii, khouzamaa, khouzami, khuzama, khuzama fassiya, khuzama zerqua, Kleiner Speik, Lavanda, lavande, lavande femelle, lavande véritable, lavando, lavandula vraie, Lavendel, lavender, lawanda, lófinda, ostoghodous, postokhodous, spigandos, true lavender

Description
An aromatic shrub, 1–2 m high. Branches grey-brown to dark brown with long flowering and short leafy shoots, bark longitudinally peeling. Leaves clustered on leafy shoots, widely spaced on flowering shoots; petiole very short; blade linear-lanceolate to linear, 17 mm long, 2 mm wide stellate tomentose, base attenuate, margin entire, revolute, apex obtuse. Inflorescence a crowded, interrupted or nearly continuous spike, 2–8 cm long; verticillasters numerous, with 6–10 flowers, upper ones denselycrowded; peduncle about three times longer than the spike; bracts papery, rhombic-ovate, 3–8 mm long, rust coloured when dry; bracteoles absent or up to 2.5 mm long, pedicel 1.0–1.5 mm long; calyx 4–7 mm long, densely grey stellate tomentose outside, with 13 longitudinal ribs, upper lip entire, appendage obcordate, lower lip four-toothed; corolla 10–12 mm long, blue, base subglabrous, throat and limb glandular hairy, upper lips straight, lower lips spreading. Nutlets narrowly cylindrical

Plant material used
essential oil

Chemical assays
Official analysis by gas chromatography shows the following composition: limonene, cineole, 3-octanone, camphor, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen- 4-ol, lavandulyl acetate, lavandulol, α-terpineol

Major chemical constituents
Contains: linalyl acetate (25–46%), linalool (20–45%), terpinen-4-ol (1.2– 6.0%), lavendulyl acetate (> 1.0%), 1,8-cineole (1,8-cineol, cineol, cineole, eucalyptol) (< 2.5%), 3-octanone (< 2.5%), camphor (< 1.2%), limonene (< 1.0%), and α-terpineol (< 2.0%)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Inhalation therapy for symptomatic treatment of anxiety, restlessness and to induce relaxation. Externally in balneotherapy for the treatment of circulation disorders

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Symptomatic treatment of insomnia, and as a carminative for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders of nervous origin.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Orally as a cholagogue, diuretic and emmenagogue; externally for the treatment of burns, diarrhoea, headaches, sore throats and wounds.

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Anaesthetic, Anticonvulsant and sedative, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial and acaricidal, Antispasmodic, Central nervous system depressant

Human studies
Anxiolytic, Analgesic

Adverse reactions
Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported in patients previously exposed to the essential oil

Contraindications
Aetheroleum Lavandulae is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to the plant material. Owing to its traditional use as an emmenagogue and abortifacient, the essential oil should not be used internally during pregnancy.

Warnings
Essential oils should be used with caution in children. Keep out of the reach of children.

Precautions
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
Owing to a lack of safety data, the essential oil should be administered internally only under the supervision of a health-care provider.

Paediatric use
Owing to a lack of safety data, the essential oil should be administered internally only under the supervision of a health-care provider.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility; or teratogenic effects during pregnancy.

Dosage forms
Essential oil. Store in a well-closed container, in a cool, dry place, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Essential oil by inhalation, 0.06–0.2 ml three times per day; internally, 1–4 drops (approximately 20–80.0 mg) on a sugar cube per day


Plant material used
dried flowers

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 1.3% (v/w) essential oil determined by steam distillation

Major chemical constituents
Contains 1.0–3.0% essential oil, of which the major constituents are linalyl acetate (30–55%) and linalool (20–50%). Other constituents include ß-ocimene, 1,8-cineole (1,8-cineol, cineol, cineole, eucalyptol), camphor and caryophyllene oxide

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Symptomatic treatment of restlessness, insomnia, and as a carminative and antispasmodic for gastrointestinal disorders of nervous origin. Externally in balneotherapy for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As a diuretic and an emmenagogue, and for the treatment of burns, diarrhoea, headaches, sore throats and wounds

Proven pharmacological activity
Anial study
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Antiulcer, Uterine stimulating, Anticonvulsant and sedative

Human study
No information available

Adverse reactions
No information available.

Contraindications
Flos Lavandulae is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to the plant material. Owing to their traditional use as an emmenagogue and abortifacient, the flowers should not be used during pregnancy.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility; teratogenic effects during pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use.

Dosage forms
Dried flowers, tablets, capsules, fluid extract, syrup, tincture and tonics. Store in a well closed container, in a cool, dry place, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Internally as a tea, dried flowers, 1–2 teaspoonfuls per cup, three times per day; tincture (1:5) in 60% ethanol, 2–4 ml three times per day. Externally as bath therapy, dried flowers, 20–100 g per 20 l of water

 

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