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Hamamelis virginiana

Hypericum perforatum
Harpagophytum procumbens
Humulus lupulus
Hydrastis canadensis


 

 

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Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae)

Synonyms
Hydrastis canadensis was formerly classified as a member of the family berberidaceae.

Local names
Eyebalm, golden seal, goldenseal, gorzknik kanadyjski, ground raspberry, hydraste, hydrastis, idraste, Indian dye, Indian paint, Indian turmeric, sceau d’or, warnera, wild curcuma, yellow puccoon

Description
A perennial herb. Underground portion consists of a horizontal, branching rhizome bearing numerous long slender roots. Aerial part consists of a single radical leaf and a short stem 10–18 cm high, which bears near its summit two petiolate, palmate (five to seven lobes), serrate leaves and ends with a solitary greenish-white flower. Fruits are compound crimson berries somewhat similar to raspberries

Plant material used
dried rhizomes and roots

Chemical assays
ontains not less than 2.0% hydrastine and not less than 2.5% berberine determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are isoquinoline alkaloids (2.5–6.0%), principally hydrastine (1.5–5.0%), followed by berberine (0.5–4.5%), canadine (tetrahydroberberine, 0.5–1.0%), and lesser quantities of related alkaloids including canadaline, corypalmine, hydrastidine and jatrorrhizine

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of digestive complaints, such as dyspepsia, gastritis, feeling of distension and flatulence.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of cystitis, dysmenorrhoea, eczema, haemorrhoids, uterine haemorrhage, inflammation, kidney diseases, menorrhagia, nasal congestion, tinnitus and vaginitis. As a cholagogue, diuretic, emmenagogue, haemostat, laxative and tonic.

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Smooth muscle relaxant, Immunomodulator, Uterine stimulant

Human studies
for Berberine:
Bacterially-induced diarrhea, ocular trachoma, cutaneous leishmaniasis, Antimicrobial

Adverse reactions
No information available on adverse reactions to Radix Hydrastis. However, high doses of hydrastine are reported to cause exaggerated reflexes, convulsions, paralysis and death from respiratory failure

Contraindications
Radix Hydrastis is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to the plant material.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
General
Use with caution in patients with high blood pressure, diabetes, glaucoma and a history of cardiovascular disease.

Drug interactions
An ethanol extract of the rhizomes inhibited the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) in vitro, median inhibitory concentration <1%. Concomitant administration of Radix Hydrastis with drugs metabolized via cytochrome P450 may therefore affect the metabolism of such drugs.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
The genotoxic effects of berberine in prokaryotic cells were assessed in the SOS-ChromoTest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No genotoxic activity with or without metabolic activation was observed, and no cytotoxic or mutagenic effects were seen under nongrowth conditions. However, in dividing cells, the alkaloid induced cytotoxic and cytostatic effects in proficient and repair-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In dividing cells, the induction of frameshift and mitochondrial mutations and crossing over showed that the compound is not a potent mutagen.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
The safety of Rhizoma Hydrastis has not been established and its use is therefore not recommended during pregnancy.

Nursing mothers
The safety of Rhizoma Hydrastis has not been established and its use is therefore not recommended in nursing mothers.

Paediatric use
The safety of Rhizoma Hydrastis has not been established and its use is therefore not recommended in children.

Other precautions
No information available on precautions concerning drug and laboratory test interactions; or teratogenic effects during pregnancy.

Dosage forms
Dried rhizomes and roots, dried extracts, fluid extracts, and tinctures. Store dried rhizomes and roots in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dose: dried rhizomes and roots 0.5–1.0 g three times, or by decoction; liquid extract 1:1 in 60% ethanol, 0.3–1.0 ml three times; tincture 1:10 in 60% ethanol, 2–4 ml three times

 

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