Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae)
Humulus lupulus L. var. cordifolius (Miq.) Maxim. in Franch. et Sav. = H. cordifolius
Miq., H. lupulus L. var. lupuloides E. Small = H. americanus Nutt., H. lupulus
L. var. lupuloides = Cannabis lupulus (L.) Scop., H. lupulus L. var. brachystachyus
Zapalowicz, H. lupulus L. var. neomexicanus Nelson et Cockerell = H. neomexicanus
(Nelson et Cockerell) Rydberg, H. volubilis Salisb., H. vulgaris Gilib., Lupulus
communis Gaertn., L. humulus Mill., L. scandens Lam.
Betiguera, bine, common hops, Echter Hopfen, European hops, hachichet addinar,
hoblon, hombrecillo, hop, hop vine, Hopfen, hops, houblon, houblon grimpant,
houblon vulgaire, humulus, lupio, luppulo, lupol, lupulin, lupulo, pijiuha,
razak, vidarria, vigne du nord, xianshema
A perennial, dioecious, twining herb, up to 6 m high. Aerial parts consist of
several long, angular, rough-hairy, entwining stems bearing cordate, palmate,
three-lobed, occasionally fi ve- to seven-lobed, scabrous, dark green, stipulate
leaves. Staminate flowers, with fi ve bracts and fi ve stamens, borne in axillary
panicles. Pistillate flowers pale green, each consisting of an entire cup-like
perianth and a unilocular ovary with a single ovule, and two long stigmas, borne
on a leafy conical catkin. Fruits are ovate to ovate-cylindrical strobiles consisting
of a flexuous rachis bearing yellowish-green to pale brown, ovate, membranous,
scaly bracts, each enclosing a brown glandular achene
Plant material used
High-performance liquid chromatography for bitter substances and xanthohumol
Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are bitter substances (15–25%) in the resins. The
resins are differentiated into hard (petroleum-ether insoluble) and soft resins.
The lipophilic soft resins contain mainly α-acids (e.g. α-humulene
(2,6,9-humulatriene) and related humulones) and ß-acids (lupulones). The
major chemical constituents of the soft resins are humulone and lupulone and
their related derivatives, 2–10% and 2–6%, respectively. The hard
resin contains a hydrophilic fraction, δ-resin, and a lipophilic fraction,
γ-resin. The essential oil (0.3–1.0%) contains mainly monoterpenes
and sesquiterpenes such as ß-caryophyllene, farnesene, humulene and ß-
myrcene (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). The essential oil also contains traces of 2- methylbut-3-ene-2-ol,
which increases in amount to a maximum of 0.15% after storage of the strobiles
for 2 years, owing to degradation of the humulones and lupulones. Other constituents
include the chalcone xanthohumol, prenylflavonoids and other flavonoids (e.g.
kaempferol, rutin) and tannins
Uses supported by clinical data
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established
As a sedative for the treatment of nervous tension and insomnia. Treatment of
dyspepsia and lack of appetite
Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of abdominal cramps, anaemia, bacterial infections, dermatitis, diarrhoea,
dysmenorrhoea, leukorrhoea, migraine and oedema (6). As an analgesic, anthelminthic,
antipyretic, aphrodisiac, carminative, depurative, digestant, diuretic, diaphoretic
Proven pharmacological activity
Antimicrobial, Anti-oedema, Antioxidant, Central nervous system depressant,
Strobilus Lupuli may cause drowsiness
Strobilus Lupuli is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to the plant material.
No information available.
While no drug interactions have been reported, flavonoid constituents of Strobilus
Lupuli have been shown to inhibit the activity of cytochrome P450, and concurrent
administration of the strobiles with prescription drugs metabolized by these
enzymes may adversely influence the pharmacokinetics of these drugs.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Subcutaneous administration of 20.0–50.0 mg/kg bw of purifi ed fractions
of the strobiles twice daily for 3 days to female rats pretreated by subcutaneous
injection with 25 IU of pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin did not induce
any changes in uterine weight, but ovarian weight decreased signifi cantly (P
< 0.05) (48).
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning
drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic or nonteratogenic effects
in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use.
Dried strobiles and dried extracts for infusions and decoctions, dry extracts,
fluid extracts, and tinctures (7, 16). Store in a tightly sealed container away
from heat and light.
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Cut or powdered strobiles or dry powder for infusion, decoctions and other preparations,
single dose of 0.5 g; liquid and solid preparations for internal use, infusion
or decoction, 0.5 g in 150 ml of water; fluid extract 1:1 (g/ml) 0.5 ml; tincture
1:5 (g/ml) 2.5 ml; native dry extract 6–8:1 (w/w) 0.06–0.08 g