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Since May 10th 2008


Initial H



Hamamelis virginiana

Hypericum perforatum
Harpagophytum procumbens
Humulus lupulus
Hydrastis canadensis


 

 

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Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae)

Synonyms
Humulus lupulus L. var. cordifolius (Miq.) Maxim. in Franch. et Sav. = H. cordifolius Miq., H. lupulus L. var. lupuloides E. Small = H. americanus Nutt., H. lupulus L. var. lupuloides = Cannabis lupulus (L.) Scop., H. lupulus L. var. brachystachyus Zapalowicz, H. lupulus L. var. neomexicanus Nelson et Cockerell = H. neomexicanus (Nelson et Cockerell) Rydberg, H. volubilis Salisb., H. vulgaris Gilib., Lupulus communis Gaertn., L. humulus Mill., L. scandens Lam.

Local names
Betiguera, bine, common hops, Echter Hopfen, European hops, hachichet addinar, hoblon, hombrecillo, hop, hop vine, Hopfen, hops, houblon, houblon grimpant, houblon vulgaire, humulus, lupio, luppulo, lupol, lupulin, lupulo, pijiuha, razak, vidarria, vigne du nord, xianshema

Description
A perennial, dioecious, twining herb, up to 6 m high. Aerial parts consist of several long, angular, rough-hairy, entwining stems bearing cordate, palmate, three-lobed, occasionally fi ve- to seven-lobed, scabrous, dark green, stipulate leaves. Staminate flowers, with fi ve bracts and fi ve stamens, borne in axillary panicles. Pistillate flowers pale green, each consisting of an entire cup-like perianth and a unilocular ovary with a single ovule, and two long stigmas, borne on a leafy conical catkin. Fruits are ovate to ovate-cylindrical strobiles consisting of a flexuous rachis bearing yellowish-green to pale brown, ovate, membranous, scaly bracts, each enclosing a brown glandular achene

Plant material used
dried strobiles

Chemical assays
High-performance liquid chromatography for bitter substances and xanthohumol

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are bitter substances (15–25%) in the resins. The resins are differentiated into hard (petroleum-ether insoluble) and soft resins. The lipophilic soft resins contain mainly α-acids (e.g. α-humulene (2,6,9-humulatriene) and related humulones) and ß-acids (lupulones). The major chemical constituents of the soft resins are humulone and lupulone and their related derivatives, 2–10% and 2–6%, respectively. The hard resin contains a hydrophilic fraction, δ-resin, and a lipophilic fraction, γ-resin. The essential oil (0.3–1.0%) contains mainly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes such as ß-caryophyllene, farnesene, humulene and ß- myrcene (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). The essential oil also contains traces of 2- methylbut-3-ene-2-ol, which increases in amount to a maximum of 0.15% after storage of the strobiles for 2 years, owing to degradation of the humulones and lupulones. Other constituents include the chalcone xanthohumol, prenylflavonoids and other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, rutin) and tannins

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
As a sedative for the treatment of nervous tension and insomnia. Treatment of dyspepsia and lack of appetite

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of abdominal cramps, anaemia, bacterial infections, dermatitis, diarrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, leukorrhoea, migraine and oedema (6). As an analgesic, anthelminthic, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, carminative, depurative, digestant, diuretic, diaphoretic and tonic

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antimicrobial, Anti-oedema, Antioxidant, Central nervous system depressant, Estrogenic

Adverse reactions
Strobilus Lupuli may cause drowsiness

Contraindications
Strobilus Lupuli is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to the plant material.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Drug interactions
While no drug interactions have been reported, flavonoid constituents of Strobilus Lupuli have been shown to inhibit the activity of cytochrome P450, and concurrent administration of the strobiles with prescription drugs metabolized by these enzymes may adversely influence the pharmacokinetics of these drugs.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Subcutaneous administration of 20.0–50.0 mg/kg bw of purifi ed fractions of the strobiles twice daily for 3 days to female rats pretreated by subcutaneous injection with 25 IU of pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin did not induce any changes in uterine weight, but ovarian weight decreased signifi cantly (P < 0.05) (48).

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic or nonteratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use.

Dosage forms
Dried strobiles and dried extracts for infusions and decoctions, dry extracts, fluid extracts, and tinctures (7, 16). Store in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Cut or powdered strobiles or dry powder for infusion, decoctions and other preparations, single dose of 0.5 g; liquid and solid preparations for internal use, infusion or decoction, 0.5 g in 150 ml of water; fluid extract 1:1 (g/ml) 0.5 ml; tincture 1:5 (g/ml) 2.5 ml; native dry extract 6–8:1 (w/w) 0.06–0.08 g

 

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