Hamamelis virginiana L. (Hamamelidaceae).
Hamamelis androgynaWalt., H. carolinianaWalt., H. corylifolia Moench., H. dentata
Moench., H. dioica Walt., H. estivalis Raf., H. macrophylla Pursh., H. nigra
Raf., H. parvifolia Raf., H. rotundifolia Raf., H. virginata sic, H. virginiae
L., H. virginiana ssp. parvifolia Nutt., H. virginica L., Trilopus dentata Raf.,
T. estivalis Raf., T. nigra Raf., T. parvifolia Raf., T. rotundifolia Raf.,
T. virginica Raf.
Amamelide, Amerikamansaku, cortice de hamamelis, feuilles d’hamamélis,
feuilles du noisetier de la sorcière, folhas de hamamelis, hamamelis,
hamamélis de virginie, Hexenhasel, magician’s rod, noisetier de
sorcière, oczar, pistachio nut, snapping hazelnut, spotted alders, striped
alder, tobacco wood, varázsdió levél és kéreg,
vilin virginsky, virginische Zaubernuss, virginischer Zauberstrauch, white hazel,
winter bloom, witch hazel, Zauberhasel, Zaubernuss
A tall shrub or small tree, up to 4.6 m high. Branches highly branched. Leaves
alternate, stipulate, short-petioled, unequilaterally ovate or rhomboid-ovate,
with oblique base and sinuate or sinuate-dentate margin. Flowers thread-like,
golden-yellow; appear in axillary clusters as leaves fall in autumn and at about
the same time as fruits ripen from blossoms of the previous year. Fruit a2-beaked,
2-celled, woody capsule dehiscing loculicidally from the top, each cell containing
a single black seed
Plant material used
dried and fresh leaves, and dried bark
Folium: contains not less than 3% tannins. Cortex: contains not less than 4%
tannins. Thin-layer chromatography is used for qualitative and quantitative
analysis of tannins. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantitative
analysis of condensed and hydrolysable tannins has been developed
Major chemical constituents
The major constituents of the dried leaf and bark are tannins (up to 10%). Both
hydrolysable and condensed tannins are present, with the latter predominating.
Folium tannins are a mixture of gallic acid (10%), hydrolysable hamamelitannin
(1.5%) and condensed proanthocyanidins (88.5%). Cortex tannins are similar qualitatively,
but have a much higher hamamelitannin level (up to 65% of a hydroalcoholic extract)
Uses supported by clinical data
Topically for minor skin lesions, bruises and sprains, local inflammation of
the skin and mucous membranes, haemorrhoids and varicose veins.
in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Topically as a haemostat.
in traditional medicine
Proven pharmacological activity
Treatment of colitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, eye inflammations,
haematuria, kidney pains, neuralgia, nosebleeds and excessive menstruation.
Also as a tonic
Astringent, Venotonic, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory
Haemorrhoids, Anti-inflammatory, Eczema, Analgesic, Antiviral
No information available.
No information available.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Aqueous extracts of the dried leaves were not carcinogenic when administered
subcutaneously to rodents (10 mg/animal).
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug
interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic and nonteratogenic
effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Folium
et Cortex Hamamelidis should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation
or to children without medical supervision.
Allergic contact dermatitis may occur in sensitive individuals.
Dried leaves and bark for decoctions; steam distillate, ointment and suppositories.
Fresh leaves and twigs are collected in the spring and early summer to make
a steam distillate. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light.
(Unless otherwise indicated)
External use: steam distillate, undiluted or diluted 1 : 3 with water to make
poultices; 20–30% in semisolid preparations.
Extracts: in semisolid and liquid preparations corresponding to 5–10%
of the crude drug.
Crude drug: decoctions from 5–10 g to 1 cup (250 ml) water for poultices
and wound irrigation.
Rectal suppositories: 1–3 times daily the quantity of a preparation corresponding
to 0.1–1.0 g crude drug, use Hamamelidis water undiluted or diluted 1
: 3 with water.
Other preparations: several times daily, corresponding to 0.1–1.0 g drug
in preparations, or witch hazel water undiluted or diluted with water