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Ginkgo biloba
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Gentiana lutea
Gentiana scabra
Guazuma ulmifolia


 

 

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Untitled Document Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae)

Synonyms
Pterophyllus salisburiensis Nelson, Salisburia adiantifolia Smith, Salisburia macrophylla C. Koch

Local names
Eun-haeng, gin-nan, ginkgo, ginkgo balm, ginkgo leaves, ginkyo, ginan, icho, ityo, kew tree, maidenhair tree, pei-wen, temple balm, yin guo, yinhsing

Description
A monotypic dioecious plant that is the only living representative of the Ginkgoales. It has a grey bark, reaches a height of 35 m and a diameter of 3–4m (sometimes up to 7m), and has fan-like leaves that are deciduous, alternate, lengthily petiolate, bilobate, base wedge-shaped, 6–9cm broad (sometimes up to 15–20 cm), turning yellow in autumn. Venation dichotomously branching, seemingly parallel. Staminate and ovulate strobili borne on separate trees; staminate strobili consisting of naked pairs of anthers in catkin-like clusters; ovulate strobili in the form of long, slender, fused stalks bearing a single naked ovule which is fertilized by motile sperm cells, developing into 2 seeds. Seeds yellow when mature, foul-smelling, drupe-like, the middle layer of integument becoming hard or stone-like, the outer layer fleshy

Plant material used
dried leaf

Chemical assays
Flavonoids not less than 0.5% calculated as flavonol glycosides or 0.2–0.4% calculated as aglycones; also contains ginkgolides (0.06–0.23%) and bilobalide (up to 0.26%). Qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoid glycosides is carried out after hydrolysis to the aglycones kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin. The qualitative presence or absence of biflavones is determined by highperformance liquid chromatography; and qualitative and quantitative determination of the diterpene ginkgolides and sesquiterpene bilobalide by high-performance liquid chromatography or gas–liquid chromatography. Certain commercial products used for clinical and experimental biological studies, e.g. EGb 761 and LI 1370, do not contain biflavones.

Major chemical constituents
Folium Ginkgo contains a wide variety of phytochemicals, including alkanes, lipids, sterols, benzenoids, carotenoids, phenylpropanoids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and terpenoids. The major constituents are flavonoids of which mono-, di-, and tri-glycosides and coumaric acid esters that are based on the flavonols kaempferol and quercetin dominate. Lesser quantities of glycosides are derived from isorhamnetin, myricetin, and 3'-methylmyricetin. Nonglycosidic biflavonoids, catechins, and proanthocyanidins are also present. Characteristic constituents of this plant material are the unique diterpene lactones ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M and the sesquiterpene lactone bilobalide. Representative structures of the major and characteristic constituents are presented below

Dosage forms
Standardized extracts (dry extracts from dried leaves, extracted with acetone and water, drug:extract ratio 35–67:1) contain 22–27% flavone glycosides and 5–7% terpene lactones, of which approximately 2.8–3.4% consists of ginkgolides A, B, and C and 2.6–3.2% bilobalide. The level of ginkgolic acids is below 5mg/kg. Coated tablets and solution for oral administration are prepared from standardized purified extracts

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Extracts as described above (Dosage forms) have been used for symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate cerebrovascular insufficiency (demential syndromes in primary degenerative dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed forms of both) with the following symptoms: memory deficit, disturbance in concentration, depressive emotional condition, dizziness, tinnitus, and headache. Such extracts are also used to improve pain-free walking distance in people with peripheral arterial occlusive disease such as intermittent claudication, Raynaud disease, acrocyanosis, and post-phlebitis syndrome, and to treat inner ear disorders such as tinnitus and vertigo of vascular and involutive origin. Extracts and doses other than those described in Dosage forms and Posology are used for similar but milder indications.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
None.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As a vermifuge, to induce labour, for the treatment of bronchitis, chronic rhinitis, chilblains, arthritis, and oedema

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Treatment of cerebrovascular insufficiency and peripheral vascular diseases, Treatment of Vestibular and auditory disturbances, Platelet aggregation inhibitor.

Human studies
Treatment of cerebrovascular insufficiency and peripheral vascular diseases, Treatment of Vestibular and auditory disturbances

Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to G. biloba preparations.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Investigations with G. biloba extracts have shown no effects that were mutagenic, carcinogenic, or toxic to reproduction Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects The safety of Folium Ginkgo for use during pregnancy has not been established.

Nursing mothers
Excretion of Folium Ginkgo into breast milk and its effects on the newborn have not been established.

Other precautions
No information is available concerning general precautions or drug interactions, drug and laboratory test interactions, teratogenic effects on pregnancy, or paediatric use.

Adverse reactions
Headaches, gastrointestinal disturbances, and allergic skin reactions are possible adverse effects.

Posology
Dried extract (as described in Dosage forms), 120–240mg daily in 2 or 3 divided doses; 40 mg extract is equivalent to 1.4–2.7 g leaves. Fluid extract (1 : 1), 0.5 ml 3 times a day

 

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