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Since May 10th 2008


Initial G




Ginkgo biloba
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Gentiana lutea
Gentiana scabra
Guazuma ulmifolia


 

 

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Gentiana scabra Bunge (Gentianaceae)

Synonyms
Gentiana buergeri Miq., G. fortunei Hook.

Local names
Chinese gentian, dancao, Japanese gentian, kudancao, longdan, longdancao, tourindou

Description
A perennial herb. Roots white, 10–15 cm long, with numerous short branches. Rhizomes rather short. Stems 20–100 cm long, with 10–20 pairs of leaves. Leaves lanceolate to narrowly deltoid-ovate, 4–8 cm long, 1–3 cm wide, gradually acuminate, three-nerved, green above, paler beneath, usually sessile, margin of upper leaves papillose. Flowers few to rather numerous, sessile, 4.5–6 cm long, purplish-blue; calyx tube 12–18 mm long, the lobes rather unequal, linear-lanceolate; corolla plaits deltoid, often toothed. Capsules stipitate, not exerted; seeds broadly lanceolate, short-caudate at both ends

Plant material used
dried roots and rhizomes

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 1.0% gentiopicroside determined by highperformance liquid chromatography

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are bitter secoiridoid monoterpenes including gentiopicroside (gentiopicrin; 0.5–10%), swertiamarin and sweroside. Xanthones, the alkaloid gentianine (0.05%) and gentianadine are other signifi cant constituents. The bitter principle amarogentin found in Gentiana lutea is absent

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Symptomatic treatment of liver disorders, cholecystitis and lack of appetite.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of convulsions, eczema, fungal infections, hearing impairment, infl ammation, leukorrhoea, otitis media, urinary tract infections, herpes zoster and pruritus vulvae.

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antihepatotoxic, Anti-infl ammatory, Antispasmodic, Sedative, Choleretic, Antimicrobial

Human studies
No information available.

Adverse reactions
Radix Gentiana Scabrae may cause impairment of digestion and, occasionally, headaches, flushing of the face and vertigo when taken after a meal

Contraindications
Owing to potential mutagenic effects, Radix Gentianae Scabrae should not be used during pregnancy or nursing or in children under the age of 12 years. Radix Gentianae Scabrae is contraindicated in stomach disorders and liver failure.

Warnings
Overdose may lead to nausea or vomiting.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous extract of the roots and rhizomes, 40.0 mg/plate or 50.0 mg/ disc, was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. In another investigation, an aqueous or methanol extract of the roots and rhizomes, 100.0 mg/ml, was active in the Salmonella/microsome assay and the Bacillus subtilis recombination assay. However, intraperitoneal injection of an aqueous extract of the roots and rhizomes at doses 10–40 times those used in traditional medicine had no mutagenic effects in mice.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; or teratogenic effects during pregnancy.

Dosage forms
Dried roots and rhizomes and dried extracts for infusions and decoction. Store in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Average daily dose: roots and rhizomes 3–6 g per day as an infusion or decoction

 

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