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Since May 10th 2008


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Echinacea angustifolia
Echinacea purpurea
Ephedra sinica
Eleutherococcus senticosus
Eucalyptus globulus


 

 

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Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Myrtaceae)

Synonyms
Eucalyptus cordata Miq., E. diversifolia Miq., E. gigantea Dehnh., E. glauca D.C., E. globulus St Lag., E. pulverulenta Link

Local names
Aceite de eucalipto, esencia de eucalipto, essence d’eucalyptus rectifiée, eucalipto essenza, eucalyptus oil, eucalyptus olie, Eucalyptusöl, huile essentielle d’eucalyptus, klei de eucalipt, minyak ekaliptus, oleo de eucalipto, Oleum eucalypti, tinh dâu Bach dan

Description
A large tree with smooth bark, very pale or ash-grey, up to 3–20m high. Branchlets quadrangular, glaucous. Leaves of young trees and first leaves of young shoots opposite, sessile, oval-oblong, with a cordate base, farinaceousglaucous; older leaves dangling, spirally arranged, lanceolate-falcate, up to 30cm long. Flowers with very short pedicels, mostly umbellate, sometimes 2–3 in a fascicle. Calyx-tube double: outer tube drops early, smooth, inner tube semi-persistent and warty. Stamens about 1.5cm long; fruit turbinate, angular, 2.0–2.5cm in diameter

Plant material used
essential oil

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 70% (w/w) 1,8-cineole (also known as cineol, cineole or eucalyptol). Quantitative analysis according to the method described for 1,8-cineole

Major chemical constituents
The major constituent is 1,8-cineole (54–95%). In addition, there are moderate amounts of α-pinene (2.6%), p-cymene (2.7%), aromadendrene, cuminaldehyde, globulol and pinocarveol.

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Symptomatic treatment of catarrh and coughs. As a component of certain dental root canal sealers; topically as a rubefacient for treatment of rheumatic complaints.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of cystitis, diabetes, gastritis, kidney disease (unspecified), neuralgia, laryngitis, leukorrhoea, malaria, pimples, ringworm, sinusitis, wounds, ulcers of the skin, urethritis and vaginitis

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory, Antitussive

Human studies
Nasal decongestant, Analgesic

Contraindications
Preparations of Aetheroleum Eucalypti should not be administered internally to children, or patients with inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder disease or impaired liver function. Aetheroleum Eucalypti should not be taken internally during pregnancy, see Precautions.

Warnings
Aetheroleum Eucalypti preparations should not be applied to the face, especially the nose, of infants or young children. Keep out of reach of children.

Precautions
General
Oily vehicles for the essential oil are unsuitable for use in nasal sprays as the vehicle inhibits ciliary movement and may cause lipid pneumonia.

Drug interactions
Although no published drug interactions were found, a number of animal studies indicate possible concern that the essential oil may induce liver enzymes involved in drug metabolism. Therefore, the effects of other drugs may be decreased following concomitant administration.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
The essential oil was a weak promoter of papilloma formation by 9, 10- dimethyl-12-benzanthracene in mice. However, the development of tumours in mice after intragastric administration of 8 or 32mg 1,8-cineole per kg body weight daily for 80 weeks was similar to that in mice treated with vehicle controls.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
The essential oil was not teratogenic when administered subcutaneously to pregnant mice (135mg/kg body weight) daily on days 6–15 of gestation.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
Eucalyptol (500mg/kg body weight, administered subcutaneously) has been reported to penetrate the placenta in rodents and reach concentrations in thefetal blood which are sufficient to stimulate hepatic enzyme activity. Therefore, Aetheroleum Eucalypti should not be taken internally during pregnancy.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications and Warnings.

Other precautions
No information available on precautions concerning drug and laboratory test interactions or nursing mothers. Therefore, Aetheroleum Eucalypti should not be administered during lactation without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
Topical applications of Aetheroleum Eucalypti are generally non-irritating, nonsensitizing and non-phototoxic. However, one case of systemic toxicity in a 6-year-old girl, and several cases of urticaria, contact dermatitis and skin irritation have been reported. Between 1981 and 1992, the clinical effects of poisoning were observed in 59% of 109 children after accidental ingestion of the essential oil (2–10ml). The symptoms included depression of conscious state (28% of cases), drowsiness (25% of cases) and unconsciousness (3% of cases), and were dosedependent. Other reported symptoms included epigastric burning, nausea,vomiting, dizziness, muscular weakness, miosis, a feeling of suffocation,cyanosis, delirium and convulsions. Allergic reactions have been reported after ingestion of 20 lozenges containing the essential oil. Between 1889 and 1922, 17 cases of fatal poisoning due to ingestion of the essential oil were reported. A dose of as little as 3.5ml was fatal. However, these data are old and the purity of the oil used is unknown.

Dosage forms
Essential oil in solid, semisolid or liquid preparations (1) and galenical preparations. Store in a well-filled, tightly closed container, protected from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Internal use
Daily dosage: 0.3–0.6 ml essential oil or equivalent preparations. Capsules: 1 capsule of 100–200mg, 2–5 times daily. Lozenges: 1 lozenge of 0.2–15.0mg dissolved slowly in the mouth, every 30–60 minutes. Mouth-wash: 20ml of a 0.91mg/ml solution, gargled twice daily. Inhalation: 12 drops/150ml boiling water.
External use
Daily dosage: several drops or 30 ml essential oil in 500ml lukewarm water rubbed into the skin for local application; 5–20% essential oil in liquid and semisolid preparations; 5–10% in hydroalcoholic preparations.


Plant material used
dried leaves

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 2% (v/w) essential oil, consisting of not less than 70% (w/w) 1,8-cineole (also known as cineol, cineole or eucalyptol). A thinlayer chromatography method is available for qualitative determination, using 1,8-cineole as a reference standard

Major chemical constituents
Dried leaves contain 1–3% (v/w) essential oil (fresh leaves contain 0.4–1.6%), the major constituent of which is 1,8-cineole (54–95%). In addition, there are moderate amounts of other monoterpenes, including α-pinene (2.6%), p-cymene (2.7%), aromadendrene, cuminaldehyde, globulol and pinocarveol. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of the oil indicated the presence of more than 70 components, 48 of which were identified. The concentration of α-terpeneol was estimated to be 28%. The leaves are rich in tannins and ellagitannins, and also contain 2–4% triterpenes (ursolic acid derivatives), a series of phloroglucinol-sesquiterpene-coupled derivatives (macrocarpals B, C, D, E, H, I and J) and flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, quercitrin and hyperoside).

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
As an expectorant for symptomatic treatment of mild inflammation of the respiratory tract and bronchitis. Also for symptomatic treatment of asthma, fever and inflammation of the throat.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of cystitis, diabetes, gastritis, kidney disease (unspecified), laryngitis, leukorrhoea, malaria, pimples, ringworm, wounds, ulcers of the skin, urethritis and vaginitis

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antibacterial and antifungal, Antiviral, Antimalarial, Antidiabetes

Contraindications
Preparations of Folium Eucalypti should not be administered internally to children or patients with inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder disease or impaired liver function.

Warnings
Folium Eucalypti preparations should not be applied to the face, especially the nose, of infants or young children. Keep out of reach of children.

Precautions
Drug interactions
Although no published drug interactions were found, a number of animal studies indicate possible concern that the leaf essential oil may induce liver

Dosage forms
Crude drug. Store in a tightly closed container, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: 4–6g crude drug or equivalent preparations. Infusion: pour 150ml of hot water over a half teaspoon of the leaves, allow them to stand for 10 minutes, then remove the leaves with a strainer. One cup (240 ml) of the freshly prepared infusion is drunk slowly three times daily. The vapour of the hot infusion is inhaled deeply

 

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