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Cassia senna

Centella asiatica
Chamomilla recutita
Cinnamomum verum
Coptis chinensis
Curcuma longa
Calendula officinalis
Cimicifuga racemosa
Crataegus monogyna
Carthamus tinctorius
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Commiphora molmol
Commiphora mukul
Crocus sativus
Cordyceps sinensis
Cyperus rotundus


 

 

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Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae)

Synonyms

Local names
Round cyperus, purple nut sedge, Hyang-boo-ja, nut grass, coco grass, rumput teki

Description
Perennial herb with rhizomes long and slender. Culms erect, slender, 20-40 cm long, leafy only at base, the base enlarged and covered with brown fibres. Leaves 2-6 mm wide, linear, sheathing at base. Inflorescence simple or compound corymbs, with 1-7 rays; bracts 2-3, as long as inflorescence; spikelets spreading, 1.5-3 cm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, 20-40 flowered; scales narrowly ovate, ascending, 3-3.5 mm long. Achenes oblong, dark brown. Jul. - Aug.Habitat. Sunny places near streams and seashores, sandy

Plant material used
Root tuber/rhizome

Major chemical constituents
Essential oil; various sesquiterpenes as 1,8-cineole, 4alpha,5alpha-oxidoeudesm-11-en-3-alpha-ol, Alkaloids, Alpha-cyperone, Alpha-rotunol, Beta-cyperone, Beta-pinene, Beta-rotunol, Beta-selinene, Calcium, Camphene, Copaene, Cyperene, Cyperenone, Cyperol, Cyperolone Cyperotundone D-copadiene, D-epoxyguaiene, D-fructose, D-glucose, Eo, Flavonoids, Gamma-cymene, Isocyperol, Isokobusone, Kobusone, Limonene, Linoleic-acid, Linolenic-acid, Magnesium, Manganese, Mustakone, Myristic-acid, Oleanolic-acid, Oleanolic-acid-3-o-neohesperidoside, Oleic-acid, P-cymol, Patchoulenone, Pectin, Polyphenols, Rotundene, Rotundenol, Rotundone, Selinatriene, Sitosterol, Stearic-acid, Sugeonol, Sugetriol,alfa-cyperone, Beta-selinene, cyperene, cyperotundone, patchoulenone, sugeonol, kobusone, and isokobusone.. Tuber is rich in Cu, Fe, Mg, and Ni. Pinene (a monoterpene), and several derivatives of the sesquiterpenes, such as cyperol, isocyperol, and cyperone, isocyperone;cyperenone; camphene; Beta-pinene; 1,8-cineole; limonene; P-cymene; cyperene; selinatriene; Beta-selinene; Beta-cyperone; patchoulenone; alfa-rotunol; Beta-rotunol; cyperol; isocyperol; copadiene; epoxyguaine; cyperolone; rotundone; kobsone; isokobusone; 4alfa-5alfa-oxidoeudesm-11-en-3Beta-ol; alfa-copaene; Beta-elemene; caryophyllene; alfa-humulene; Gama-cadinene; calamene; cyperotundone; patchoulenylacetate; segeonol; sugeonol acetate; rhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1-4)-rhamnopyran-oside; Glucose(8.3~9.1%),Fructose(1.0%~1.7%);starch (40%~41.1%); protein (4.9%); Mg,1285.7ug.
Essential oil: The main components are alpha-copaene (1.97%), cyperene (15.73%), alpha-hisaholene (2. 14%), alpha-gurjunene (1. 29%), 2-methoxy-8-methyl-1, 4-naphthalenedione (4.01%), beta-selinene (17.99%), oxo-alpha-ylangene (3.00%); 4,4alpha,5,6,7,8,-hexahydro-4alpha, 5-dimethyl-3-(1-methyl ethylidene)-2 (3H)-naphthalenone(8.11%), alpha-cyperone(26.15 %), longipinocarvone (1.11%), etc.

Dosage forms
Dried tuber powder

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, gastralgia, dyspepsia

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Carminative, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic, hypotensive, emmenagogue and nervine tonic

Uses described in traditional medicine
Antispasmodic, diuretic, ingredients in cosmetic

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, antibacterial, aldose reductase inhibition, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, anti hyperlipidemia

Human studies
Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, gastralgia, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, and vomiting, control postpartum bleeding and headache

Toxicity
Cyperus root toxicity is low, rat bearable for 25% or less mix ratio of feed with cyperus root as additives. Growth inhibited when add ratio reach to 30%~50%.
Cyperus volatile oil Acute Toxicity LD50, in mice: Interaperitonea Injection.:0.297+-0.019 ml/kg.
The LD 50 of cyperus ethanol extract under Interaperitoneal Injection administration comes about 1500 mg/kg. Acute toxicity of Cyperus triterpene glycosides IV-B proved as: LD50. Mice, Interaperitonea Injection.50 mg/kg.

Contraindications
Pregnancy

Warnings
No data available

Precautions
Drug interactions
May have additive effect to antuhpertensive medication

Laboratory test interactions
No data available

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis
No data available

Pregnancy
Is rated 8th among 250 most potent antifertility plants in China, do not use in pregnancy

Nursing mothers
No data available, therefor avoid it

Paediatric use
No data available, therefor avoid it

Adverse reactions
No data available

Posology
Dose 8-12 g of fresh root/day

 

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