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Since May 10th 2008


Initial C



Cassia senna

Centella asiatica
Chamomilla recutita
Cinnamomum verum
Coptis chinensis
Curcuma longa
Calendula officinalis
Cimicifuga racemosa
Crataegus monogyna
Carthamus tinctorius
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Commiphora molmol
Commiphora mukul
Crocus sativus
Cordyceps sinensis
Cyperus rotundus


 

 

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Untitled Document Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)

Synonyms
Curcuma domestica Valeton., C. rotunda L., C. xanthorrhiza Naves, Amomum curcuma Jacq.

Local names
Acafrao, arqussofar, asabi-e-safr, avea, cago rerega, chiang-huang, common tumeric, curcum, curcuma, dilau, dilaw, Gelbwurzel, gezo, goeratji, haladi, haldi, haldu, haku halu, hardi, haridra, huang chiang, hsanwen, hurid, Indian saffron, jiânghuang, kaha, kakoenji, kalo haledo, khamin chan, khaminchan, kilunga kuku, kitambwe, kiko eea, koening, koenit, koenjet, kondin, kooneit, kunyit, kurcum, kurkum, Kurkumawurzelstock, luyang dilaw, mandano, manjano, manjal, nghe, nisha, oendre, pasupu, rajani, rame, renga, rhizome de curcuma, saffran vert, safran, safran des indes, skyer-rtsa, tumeric, tumeric root, tumeric rhizome, turmeric, ukon, ul gum, wong keong, wong keung, yellow root, yii-chin, zardchob

Description
Perennial herb up to 1.0 m in height; stout, fleshy, main rhizome nearly ovoid (about 3 cm in diameter and 4 cm long). Lateral rhizome, slightly bent (1cm  2–6cm), flesh orange in colour; large leaves lanceolate, uniformly green, up to 50cm long and 7–25cm wide; apex acute and caudate with tapering base, petiole and sheath sparsely to densely pubescent. Spike, apical, cylindrical, 10– 15cm long and 5–7 cm in diameter. Bract white or white with light green upper half, 5–6 cm long, each subtending flowers, bracteoles up to 3.5 cm long. Pale yellow flowers about 5cm long; calyx tubular, unilaterally split, unequally toothed; corolla white, tube funnel shaped, limb 3-lobed. Stamens lateral, petaloid, widely elliptical, longer than the anther; filament united to antherabout the middle of the pollen sac, spurred at base. Ovary trilocular; style glabrous. Capsule ellipsoid. Rhizomes orange within

Plant material used
dried rhizome

Chemical assays
Not less than 4.0% of volatile oil, and not less than 3.0% of curcuminoids. Qualitative analysis by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography and quantitative assay for total curcuminoids by spectrophotometric or by high-performance liquid chromatographic methods

Major chemical constituents
Pale yellow to orange-yellow volatile oil (6%) composed of a number of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including zingiberene, curcumene, α- and β- turmerone among others. The colouring principles (5%) are curcuminoids, 50– 60% of which are a mixture of curcumin, monodesmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin

Dosage forms
Powdered crude plant material, rhizomes, and corresponding preparations. Store in a dry environment protected from light. Air dry the crude drug every 2–3 months

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
The principal use of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is for the treatment of acid, flatulent, or atonic dyspepsia.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of peptic ulcers, and pain and inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis and of amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, diarrhoea, epilepsy, pain, and skin diseases.

Uses described in traditional medicine
The treatment of asthma, boils, bruises, coughs, dizziness, epilepsy, haemorrhages, insect bites, jaundice, ringworm, urinary calculi, and slow lactation

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Anti-inflammatory, Antiulcer and dyspepsia

Human studies
Anti-inflammatory, Antiulcer and dyspepsia

Contraindications
Obstruction of the biliary tract. In cases of gallstones, use only after consultation with a physician. Hypersensitivity to the drug.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is not mutagenic in vitro.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Orally administered Rhizoma Curcumae Longae was not tetratogenic in mice or rats.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
The safety of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae during pregnancy has not been established. As a precautionary measure the drug should not be used during pregnancy except on medical advice.

Nursing mothers
Excretion of the drug into breast milk and its effects on the newborn have not been established. Until such data are available, the drug should not be used during lactation except on medical advice.

Paediatric use
The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children has not been established.

Other precautions
No information on drug interactions or drug and laboratory test interactions was found.

Adverse reactions
Allergic dermatitis has been reported. Reactions to patch testing occurred most commonly in persons who were regularly exposed to the substance or who already had dermatitis of the finger tips. Persons who were not previously exposed to the drug had few allergic reactions

Posology
Crude plant material, 3–9g daily; powdered plant material, 1.5–3.0 g daily; oral infusion, 0.5–1g three times per day; tincture (1 : 10) 0.5–1ml three times per day.

 

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