Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)
Curcuma domestica Valeton., C. rotunda L., C. xanthorrhiza Naves, Amomum curcuma
Acafrao, arqussofar, asabi-e-safr, avea, cago rerega, chiang-huang, common tumeric,
curcum, curcuma, dilau, dilaw, Gelbwurzel, gezo, goeratji, haladi, haldi, haldu,
haku halu, hardi, haridra, huang chiang, hsanwen, hurid, Indian saffron, jiânghuang,
kaha, kakoenji, kalo haledo, khamin chan, khaminchan, kilunga kuku, kitambwe,
kiko eea, koening, koenit, koenjet, kondin, kooneit, kunyit, kurcum, kurkum,
Kurkumawurzelstock, luyang dilaw, mandano, manjano, manjal, nghe, nisha, oendre,
pasupu, rajani, rame, renga, rhizome de curcuma, saffran vert, safran, safran
des indes, skyer-rtsa, tumeric, tumeric root, tumeric rhizome, turmeric, ukon,
ul gum, wong keong, wong keung, yellow root, yii-chin, zardchob
Perennial herb up to 1.0 m in height; stout, fleshy, main rhizome nearly ovoid
(about 3 cm in diameter and 4 cm long). Lateral rhizome, slightly bent (1cm
2–6cm), flesh orange in colour; large leaves lanceolate, uniformly green,
up to 50cm long and 7–25cm wide; apex acute and caudate with tapering
base, petiole and sheath sparsely to densely pubescent. Spike, apical, cylindrical,
10– 15cm long and 5–7 cm in diameter. Bract white or white with
light green upper half, 5–6 cm long, each subtending flowers, bracteoles
up to 3.5 cm long. Pale yellow flowers about 5cm long; calyx tubular, unilaterally
split, unequally toothed; corolla white, tube funnel shaped, limb 3-lobed. Stamens
lateral, petaloid, widely elliptical, longer than the anther; filament united
to antherabout the middle of the pollen sac, spurred at base. Ovary trilocular;
style glabrous. Capsule ellipsoid. Rhizomes orange within
Plant material used
Not less than 4.0% of volatile oil, and not less than 3.0% of curcuminoids.
Qualitative analysis by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography
and quantitative assay for total curcuminoids by spectrophotometric or by high-performance
liquid chromatographic methods
Major chemical constituents
Pale yellow to orange-yellow volatile oil (6%) composed of a number of monoterpenes
and sesquiterpenes, including zingiberene, curcumene, α- and β- turmerone
among others. The colouring principles (5%) are curcuminoids, 50– 60%
of which are a mixture of curcumin, monodesmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin
Powdered crude plant material, rhizomes, and corresponding preparations. Store
in a dry environment protected from light. Air dry the crude drug every 2–3
Uses supported by clinical data
The principal use of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is for the treatment of acid, flatulent,
or atonic dyspepsia.
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well
Treatment of peptic ulcers, and pain and inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis
and of amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, diarrhoea, epilepsy, pain, and skin diseases.
Uses described in traditional medicine
Proven pharmacological activity
The treatment of asthma, boils, bruises, coughs, dizziness, epilepsy, haemorrhages,
insect bites, jaundice, ringworm, urinary calculi, and slow lactation
Anti-inflammatory, Antiulcer and dyspepsia
Anti-inflammatory, Antiulcer and dyspepsia
Obstruction of the biliary tract. In cases of gallstones, use only after consultation
with a physician. Hypersensitivity to the drug.
No information available.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is not mutagenic in vitro.
Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Orally administered Rhizoma Curcumae Longae was not tetratogenic in mice or
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
The safety of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae during pregnancy has not been established.
As a precautionary measure the drug should not be used during pregnancy except
on medical advice.
Excretion of the drug into breast milk and its effects on the newborn have not
been established. Until such data are available, the drug should not be used
during lactation except on medical advice.
The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children has not been established.
No information on drug interactions or drug and laboratory test interactions
Allergic dermatitis has been reported. Reactions to patch testing occurred most
commonly in persons who were regularly exposed to the substance or who already
had dermatitis of the finger tips. Persons who were not previously exposed to
the drug had few allergic reactions
Crude plant material, 3–9g daily; powdered plant material, 1.5–3.0
g daily; oral infusion, 0.5–1g three times per day; tincture (1 : 10)
0.5–1ml three times per day.