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Cassia senna

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Commiphora molmol
Commiphora mukul
Crocus sativus
Cordyceps sinensis
Cyperus rotundus


 

 

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Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. (Burseraceae)

Synonyms
Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks, B. roxburghii Stocks non Arn., Commiphora roxburghii (Stocks) Engl., C. wightii (Arn.) Bhandari

Local names
Aflatan, baijahundana, bdellium, boe-jahudan, devadhüpa, gogil, gugaru, guggal, guggul, guggula, guggulu, gukkal, gukkulu, hill mango, Indian bdellium, Indian myrrh tree, itinnil, kiluvai, kondamamidi, koushikaka, kungiliyam, maisatchi, moghl, moghl-arabi, moghl-azragh, moghl-makki, moql, moqle-azraqi, mugul, mukul myrrh tree, pura, ranghan

Description
Woody, bushy shrub 1–4 m high. Stems and branches thorny, covered with wax and ash-coloured bark that peels into thin rolls. Leaves small, alternate, simple or trifoliate. Flowers unisexual or bisexual with a fuzzy calyx and a brownish-red corolla. Fruits are ovoid drupes that turn red when ripe

Plant material used
dried oleo-gum resin

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 4.0% and not more than 6.0% of guggulsterones Z and E determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

Major chemical constituents
A mixture of resins, essential oil (1.4–1.45%) and a water-soluble gum (made up of galactose, arabinose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. The major constituents of the essential oil fraction of the oleo-gum resin are the monoterpene myrcene and the diterpene camphorene. The resinous fraction contains the diterpenes cembrene A and mukulol; the lignans sesamin and guggullignan-I and -II; and the sterols guggulsterol-I, -II, -III, -IV and -V, and E- and Z-guggulsterone (up to 15%). E- and Z-guggulsterone are characteristic constituents that distinguish Commiphora mukul from other Commiphora species

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Treatment of hyperlipidaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Clinical investigations to assess the use of extracts of the oleo-gumresin for the treatment of obesity were negative

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of atherosclerosis, rheumatic conditions, cough, sore throat and menopausal symptoms. As an emmenagogue.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Internally as an expectorant and for treatment of diarrhoea, fatigue, headache, jaundice and indigestion; topically for treatment of burns. Also as an insecticide and insect repellent

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Anticoagulant, Antihypercholesterolaemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antiobesity, Increase iodine uptake

Human studies
Antihyperlipidemic

Adverse reactions
In clinical trials, minor adverse effects such as mild diarrhoea and restlessness have been reported. In one clinical trial of the oleo-gum resin, gastrointestinal upset was noted in 17.5% of patients. Topical application of a diluted (8%) aqueous solution of an essential oil obtained from the oleo-gum resin was non-irritating, non-sensitizing and nonphototoxic. However, application of an extract (not further specified) to human skin caused contact dermatitis. In clinical trials, the oleo-gum resin and petroleum ether extracts of the oleo-gum resin were reported to shorten the menstrual cycle and increase menstrual flow

Contraindications
Gummi Gugguli is used traditionally as an emmenagogue, and its safety during pregnancy has not been established. Therefore, in accordance with standard medical practice, the oleo-gum resin should not be used during pregnancy.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An aqueous extract of the oleo-gum resin, 40.0 mg/plate, was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Intraperitoneal administration of an aqueous extract of the oleo-gum resin at a dose 10–40 times the normal therapeutic dose did not have mutagenic activity. A hot aqueous extract of the oleo-gum resin, 40.0 mg/plate, inhibited mutagenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Intragastric administration of the oleo-gum resin (dose not specified) reduced the weight of rat uterus, ovaries and cervix, with a concomitant increase in their glycogen and sialic acid concentrations, suggesting an antifertility effect.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use.

Dosage forms
Powdered oleo-gum resin; petroleum ether or ethyl acetate extracts of the oleo-gum resin; other galenical preparations. Store in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Average daily dose: oleo-gum resin 3–4.5 g in two or three divided doses; petroleum ether extracts of the oleo-gum resin 500 mg two or three times

 

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