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Since May 10th 2008


Initial C



Cassia senna

Centella asiatica
Chamomilla recutita
Cinnamomum verum
Coptis chinensis
Curcuma longa
Calendula officinalis
Cimicifuga racemosa
Crataegus monogyna
Carthamus tinctorius
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Commiphora molmol
Commiphora mukul
Crocus sativus
Cordyceps sinensis
Cyperus rotundus


 

 

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Untitled Document Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. (Lauraceae)

Synonyms
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, Laurus cinnamomum L.

Local names
Abdalasini, blood-giving drops, canela, canela en raja, cannalavanga pattai, cannelle de ceylan, cannelle dite de Ceylan, cannelier, Ceylon celonzimi cinnamon, Ceylon cinnamon, cinnamon, cinnamon bark, cinnamon tree, cortex cinnamomi ceylanici, dalchini, dalochini, dar sini quirfa, darchini, daruchini, darusila, ecorce de cannelier de Ceylan, echter Kanel, gujerati-dalchini, kannel, kuei-pi, kurundu, kurundu-potu, kulit kayumanis, ob choei, tamalpatra, wild cinnamon, Zimtrinde

Description
A moderate-sized evergreen tree; bark rather thick, smooth, pale; twigs often compressed; young parts glabrous except the buds which are finely silky. Leaves opposite or subopposite (rarely alternate), hard and coriaceous, 7.5–20 by 3.8–7.5 cm, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, subacute or shortly acuminate, glabrous and shining above, slightly paler beneath, base acute or rounded; main nerves 3–5 from the base or nearly so, strong, with fine reticulate venation between; petioles 1.3–2.5 cm long, flattened above. Flowers numerous, in silky pubescent, lax panicles usually longer than the leaves; peduncles long, often clustered, glabrous or pubescent; pedicels long. Perianth 5–6mm long; tube 2.5 mm long; segments pubescent on both sides, oblong or somewhat obovate, usually obtuse. Fruit 1.3–1.7 cm long, oblong or ovoid-oblong, minutely apiculate, dry or slightly fleshy, dark purple, surrounded by the enlarged campanulate perianth that is 8 mm in diameter

Plant material used
dried bark, free from the outer cork

Chemical assays
Not less than 1.2% v/w of volatile oil derived from C. verum and 1–2% v/w of volatile oil derived from C. cassia, containing 60–80% w/w aldehydes calculated as cinnamaldehyde. Assay for cinnamaldehyde content by means of thin-layer or high-performance liquid chromatographic methods.

Major chemical constituents
The major constituent in both C. verum and C. cassia is cinnamaldehyde, at concentrations of 65–80% and 90% of the volatile oil, respectively Cinnamomum verum also contains o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Cinnamomum verum differs from C. cassia in its eugenol and coumarin content. Cinnamomum verum volatile oil contains 10% eugenol, whereas in C. cassia, only a trace quantity of this compound is found. Coumarin is present in C. cassia (0.45%), but not in C. verum

Dosage forms
Crude plant material, powder, volatile oil, other galenic preparations. Store in a well-closed glass or metal container (do not use plastic), protected from light and moisture.

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
The treatment of dyspeptic conditions such as mild spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, fullness and flatulence, and loss of appetite. Also used to treat abdominal pain with diarrhoea, and pain associated with amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea.

Uses described in traditional medicine
The treatment of impotence, frigidity, dyspnoea, inflammation of the eye, leukorrhoea, vaginitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, wounds, and toothache

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antibacterial, Antifungal, Carminative, Smooth muscle relaxant

Human studies
No information available.

Contraindications
The drug is contraindicated in cases of fever of unknown origin, pregnancy, stomach or duodenal ulcers, and in patients with an allergy to cinnamon or Peru balsam.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Drug interactions
Cinnamomum cassia bark extract (2 g in 100 ml) markedly decreased the in vitro dissolution of tetracycline hydrochloride. In the presence of C. cassia bark, only 20% of tetracycline was in solution after 30 minutes, in contrast to 97% when only water was used. However, the clinical significance of this interaction has not been established. The drug is reported to be incompatible with Halloysitum rubrum.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
There are insufficient data to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Cortex Cinnamomi. Reports concerning the mutagenicity of the drug are contradictory. Extracts of the plant and cinnamaldehyde have been reported to be both mutagenic and non-mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames assay) and in assays using Bacillus subtilis. However, the results of these in vitro mutagenicity studies are difficult to assess because, at the doses given, the effects may have been due to the antimicrobial effects of the drug. Cortex Cinnamomi and cinnamaldehyde gave positive results in chromosomal aberration tests using Chinese hamster cell cultures, and in Drosophila test systems. An aqueous extract of the drug was also negative in the Drosophila test system.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Available data are not sufficient for an adequate benefit/risk assessment. Therefore, Cortex Cinnamomi should not be used during pregnancy. There is one report of teratogenicity of cinnamaldehyde in chick embryos, but studies of teratogenicity in chick embryos are of limited usefulness when evaluating the teratogenic potential for humans. A methanol extract of the drug given by gastric intubation was not teratogenic in rats

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
Cortex Cinnamomi should not be used during pregnancy. See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
Available data are not sufficient for an adequate benefit/risk assessment. Therefore, Cortex Cinnamomi should not be used during lactation.

Paediatric use
The safety and efficacy of the drug in children have not been established.

Other precautions
No information available concerning general precautions, or drug and laboratory test interactions.

Adverse reactions
Allergic reactions of the skin and mucosa have been reported.

Posology
Crude drug—average daily dose, 2–4g; volatile oil—average daily dose, 0.05–0.2 g; other preparations—average daily dose as above

 

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