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Since May 10th 2008


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Cassia senna

Centella asiatica
Chamomilla recutita
Cinnamomum verum
Coptis chinensis
Curcuma longa
Calendula officinalis
Cimicifuga racemosa
Crataegus monogyna
Carthamus tinctorius
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Commiphora molmol
Commiphora mukul
Crocus sativus
Cordyceps sinensis
Cyperus rotundus


 

 

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Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. (Ranunculaceae)

Synonyms
Actaea gyrostachya Wender, A. orthostachya Wender, A. monogyna Walt., A. racemosa L., Bortrophis actaeoides Raf., B. serpentaria Raf., Christophoriana canadensisracemosa Gouan, Cimicifuga racemosa (Torr) Bart., C. serpentaria Pursh, Macrotis racemosa Sweet, M. serpentaria Raf., Macrotrys actaeiodes Raf.

Local names
Actée à grappes, black cohosh, black root, black snakeroot, bugbane, bugwort, bugwort rattleroot, cimicifuga, cohosh bugbane, Frauen Wurzel, herbe aux punaises, macrotnys, macrotys, macroty’s, natsushirogiku, Qatil el baq, racine d’actée à grappes, rattle root, rattle snake root, rattle top, rattleweed, rich weed, schwarze Schlangenwurzel, squaw root, squawroot, Traubensilberkerze, Wanzenkraut, zilberkaars

Description
A perennial herb, up to 1–2.5 m high; subterranean part consists of a thick, knotted rhizome system. Leaves compound, pinnate, up to 7cm long; leaflets serrate along the margin, subcordate to subcuneate at the base. Inflorescence a long, wand-like raceme of white flowers with numerous stamens

Plant material of interest
dried rhizomes and roots

Chemical assays
Qualitative assessments may be based on the triterpene and isoflavonoid content. Concentration ranges and quantitative methods need to be established. A high-performance liquid chromatography method is available for the quantitative analysis of flavones

Major chemical constituents
The major and characteristic constituents include the cycloartanol-based triterpenes acteol, acetylacteol, 26-deoxyacteol, cimigenol, actein, 26-deoxyactein and cimicifugoside. (E)-Isoferulic acid and the isoflavone formononetin are also found. However, the latter compound could not be detected in alcohol extracts of the root

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Treatment of climacteric symptoms such as hot flushes, profuse sweating, sleeping disorders and nervous irritability.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhoea.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of coughs, dyspepsia, epilepsy, intercostal myalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, snake bites, tinnitus and whooping cough

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Estrogenic, Anti-inflammatory

Human studies
Climacteric symptoms, General gynaecological disorders

Contraindications
Owing to its potential estrogenic effects and the lack of data on its safety, Rhizoma Cimicifugae Racemosae should not be used during pregnancy or lactation, or in children under the age of 12 years.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
A 40% isopropyl alcohol extract of the crude drug was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Intragastric administration of up to 2 g/kg body weight of the crude drug, as a component of two traditional Chinese medicines, to pregnant rats daily on days 7–17 of gestation was not teratogenic. (See also Contraindications.)

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions or drug and laboratory test interactions.

Adverse reactions
Minor gastrointestinal upset and headache.

Dosage forms
Crude drug, and isopropyl alcohol or ethanol extracts. Store in a wellclosed container, protected from light and moisture.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: 40–60% isopropyl alcohol or ethanol extracts of the crude drug, corresponding to 40 mg drug

 

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