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Cassia senna

Centella asiatica
Chamomilla recutita
Cinnamomum verum
Coptis chinensis
Curcuma longa
Calendula officinalis
Cimicifuga racemosa
Crataegus monogyna
Carthamus tinctorius
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Commiphora molmol
Commiphora mukul
Crocus sativus
Cordyceps sinensis
Cyperus rotundus


 

 

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Untitled Document Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert (Asteraceae/Compositae)

Synonyms
Matricaria chamomilla L., M. recutita L., M. suaveolens L.

Local names
Baboonig, babuna, babunah camomile, babunj, bunga kamil, camamilla, camomile, chamomile, camomilla, chamomille allemande, campomilla, chamomille commune, camomille sauvage, fleurs de petite camomille, flos chamomillae, german chamomile, hungarian chamomile, Kamille, Kamillen, kamitsure, kamiture, manzanilla, manzanilla chiquita, manzanilla comun, manzanilla dulce, matricaire, matricaria flowers, pin heads, sweet false chamomille, sweet feverfew, wild chamomile

Description
Herbaceous annual; 10–30 cm in height, with erect, branching stems and alternate, tripinnately divided leaves below and bipinnately divided leaves above, both types having almost filiform lobes; the capitulum (to 1.5 cm in diameter) comprises 12–20 white ligulate florets surrounding a conical hollow receptacle on which numerous yellow tubular (disk) florets are inserted; the inflorescence is surrounded by a flattened imbricated involucre; fruit small, smooth, yellowish

Plant material used
flower heads

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 0.4% v/w of essential oil. Total volatile oil content is determined by pharmacopoeial methods.
Thin-layer and gas–liquid chromatography for volatile oil constituents, and high-performance liquid chromatography for flavonoids

Major chemical constituents
Flos Chamomillae contains an essential oil (0.4–1.5%), which has an intense blue colour owing to its chamazulene content (1–15%). Other major constituents include a-bisabolol and related sesquiterpenes (up to 50% of the oil). Apigenin and related flavonoid glycosides constitute up to 8% (dry weight) of the drug

Dosage forms
Dried flower-heads, liquid extract (1 :1 in 45% alcohol), tinctures and other galenicals. Store in well-closed containers, protected from light.

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Internal use
Symptomatic treatment of digestive ailments such as dyspepsia, epigastric bloating, impaired digestion, and flatulence. Infusions of camomile flowers have been used in the treatment of restlessness and in mild cases of insomnia due to nervous disorders.
External use
Inflammation and irritations of the skin and mucosa (skin cracks, bruises, frostbite, and insect bites), including irritations and infections of the mouth and gums, and haemorrhoids
Inhalation
Symptomatic relief of irritations of the respiratory tract due to the common cold.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established document
Adjuvant in the treatment of minor inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an antibacterial and antiviral agent, an emetic, and an emmenagogue. It is also used to relieve eye strain, and to treat urinary infections and diarrhoea

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antibacterial, Topical and systemic anti-inflammation, Antispasmodic, CNS depressant

Human studies
Wound healing, Topical and systemic antiinflammation

Contraindications
Camomile is contraindicated in patients with a known sensitivity or allergy to plants of the Asteraceae (Compositae) such as ragweed, asters, and chrysanthemums.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
No mutagenic effects were found in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 97a, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 104, with or without metabolic activation.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
No adverse effects reported in vivo

Other precautions
No information available concerning general precautions, drug interactions, drug and laboratory test interactions, non-teratogenic effects on pregnancy, nursing mothers, or paediatric use.

Adverse reactions
The presence of lactones in Flos Chamomillae-based preparations may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals and there have been reports of contact dermatitis due to camomile preparations. It should be noted that very few cases of allergy were specifically attributed to German camomile. A few cases of anaphylactic reactions to the ingestion of Flos Chamomillae have also been reported.

Posology
Internal use
Adult dose of flower head: average daily dose 2–8g, 3 times a day; of fluid extract 1 : 1 in 45% ethanol: dose 1–4ml, 3 times a day. Child dose of flower head: 2 g, 3 times daily; of fluid extract (ethanol 45–60%): single dose 0.6–2ml. Should not be used by children under 3 years old.
External use
For compresses, rinses or gargles: 3–10% (30–100g/l) infusion or 1% fluid extract or 5% tincture. For baths: 5 g/l of water or 0.8 g/l of alcoholic extract. For semisolid preparations: hydroalcoholic extracts corresponding to 3– 10% (30–100g/kg) of the drug. For vapour inhalation: 6g of the drug or 0.8 g of alcoholic extract per litre of hot water

 

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