Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert (Asteraceae/Compositae)
Matricaria chamomilla L., M. recutita L., M. suaveolens L.
Baboonig, babuna, babunah camomile, babunj, bunga kamil, camamilla, camomile,
chamomile, camomilla, chamomille allemande, campomilla, chamomille commune,
camomille sauvage, fleurs de petite camomille, flos chamomillae, german chamomile,
hungarian chamomile, Kamille, Kamillen, kamitsure, kamiture, manzanilla, manzanilla
chiquita, manzanilla comun, manzanilla dulce, matricaire, matricaria flowers,
pin heads, sweet false chamomille, sweet feverfew, wild chamomile
Herbaceous annual; 10–30 cm in height, with erect, branching stems and
alternate, tripinnately divided leaves below and bipinnately divided leaves
above, both types having almost filiform lobes; the capitulum (to 1.5 cm in
diameter) comprises 12–20 white ligulate florets surrounding a conical
hollow receptacle on which numerous yellow tubular (disk) florets are inserted;
the inflorescence is surrounded by a flattened imbricated involucre; fruit small,
Plant material used
Contains not less than 0.4% v/w of essential oil. Total volatile oil content
is determined by pharmacopoeial methods.
Thin-layer and gas–liquid chromatography for volatile oil constituents,
and high-performance liquid chromatography for flavonoids
Major chemical constituents
Flos Chamomillae contains an essential oil (0.4–1.5%), which has an intense
blue colour owing to its chamazulene content (1–15%). Other major constituents
include a-bisabolol and related sesquiterpenes (up to 50% of the oil). Apigenin
and related flavonoid glycosides constitute up to 8% (dry weight) of the drug
Dried flower-heads, liquid extract (1 :1 in 45% alcohol), tinctures and other
galenicals. Store in well-closed containers, protected from light.
Uses supported by clinical data
Symptomatic treatment of digestive ailments such as dyspepsia, epigastric bloating,
impaired digestion, and flatulence. Infusions of camomile flowers have been
used in the treatment of restlessness and in mild cases of insomnia due to nervous
Inflammation and irritations of the skin and mucosa (skin cracks, bruises, frostbite,
and insect bites), including irritations and infections of the mouth and gums,
Symptomatic relief of irritations of the respiratory tract due to the common
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well
Adjuvant in the treatment of minor inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal
Uses described in traditional medicine
As an antibacterial and antiviral agent, an emetic, and an emmenagogue. It is
also used to relieve eye strain, and to treat urinary infections and diarrhoea
Proven pharmacological activity
Antibacterial, Topical and systemic anti-inflammation, Antispasmodic, CNS depressant
Wound healing, Topical and systemic antiinflammation
Camomile is contraindicated in patients with a known sensitivity or allergy
to plants of the Asteraceae (Compositae) such as ragweed, asters, and chrysanthemums.
No information available.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
No mutagenic effects were found in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 97a, TA
98, TA 100 and TA 104, with or without metabolic activation.
Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
No adverse effects reported in vivo
No information available concerning general precautions, drug interactions,
drug and laboratory test interactions, non-teratogenic effects on pregnancy,
nursing mothers, or paediatric use.
The presence of lactones in Flos Chamomillae-based preparations may cause allergic
reactions in sensitive individuals and there have been reports of contact dermatitis
due to camomile preparations. It should be noted that very few cases of allergy
were specifically attributed to German camomile. A few cases of anaphylactic
reactions to the ingestion of Flos Chamomillae have also been reported.
Adult dose of flower head: average daily dose 2–8g, 3 times a day; of
fluid extract 1 : 1 in 45% ethanol: dose 1–4ml, 3 times a day. Child dose
of flower head: 2 g, 3 times daily; of fluid extract (ethanol 45–60%):
single dose 0.6–2ml. Should not be used by children under 3 years old.
For compresses, rinses or gargles: 3–10% (30–100g/l) infusion or
1% fluid extract or 5% tincture. For baths: 5 g/l of water or 0.8 g/l of alcoholic
extract. For semisolid preparations: hydroalcoholic extracts corresponding to
3– 10% (30–100g/kg) of the drug. For vapour inhalation: 6g of the
drug or 0.8 g of alcoholic extract per litre of hot water