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Since May 10th 2008


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Cassia senna

Centella asiatica
Chamomilla recutita
Cinnamomum verum
Coptis chinensis
Curcuma longa
Calendula officinalis
Cimicifuga racemosa
Crataegus monogyna
Carthamus tinctorius
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Commiphora molmol
Commiphora mukul
Crocus sativus
Cordyceps sinensis
Cyperus rotundus


 

 

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Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)/Compositae

Local names
Atunjaq, calendula, Chinese safflower, cuc kim tiên, djamir, djomaira, feminell, flamenquilla, fleur de calandule, fleur de souci, fleur de souci officinal, fleurs de tous les mois, garden marigold, gold-bloom, Goldblume, gole hamisheh bahar, hen and chickens, Körömvirag, lellousha, maravilla, marigold, mary-bud, ok-hhawan, pot marigold, qaraqus, qawqhan, quaqahan, ringflower, Ringelblüten, saialill, sciure’e Sant’antonio, souci, souci des jardins, tabsoult,toukinsenka, tousslat, uchu k’aspa, virreina, xu xi, zergul zerzira, zobeida, zubaydah

Description
An annual herb, much branched from the base, very aromatic, up to 0.3–0.6m high; stem angular, hairy and solid. Leaves sessile, light green, with semiamplexicaul base; entire, undulate or remotely denticulate; glandular hairs on both surfaces; lower leaves spatulate, obtuse, sometimes acute at the apex, 10–20cm long and 1–4 cm wide; higher leaves oblong and mucronate, 4–7cm long. Involucral bracts 7–15 mm long, covered with long, glandular hairs; inner involucral bracts with pellucid, scarious margin; marginal flowers in cultivated plants often multi-seriate; corolla oblong-spatulate, bright yellow or orange, 15–25mm long and 3mm wide, 1–3-toothed with 4 or 5 veins, marginally entire, covered at the base with patent, long, thick hairs; corolla of disc flowers rounded, 3-dentate top, 1.5–2.5 cm long and 4–7mm in diameter, 5mm long tube and moderately widened limb. Stigma short, thick, hairy; ovary oblong, 0.5 mm in length, pubescent, shrivelling after anthesis. Achenes narrowly oblong, strongly curved, faintly ribbed, thinly pubescent or glabrous, 10–12mm ong, outer achenes warty-ribbed outside, inner achenes prickly-warty, often with broad, thick margins

Plant material used
dried ligulate florets and composite flowers

Chemical assays
Contains not less than 0.4% flavonoids, calculated as hyperoside, by spectrophotometry. A high-performance liquid chromatography method is also available

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are triterpene saponins (2–10%) based on oleanolic acid (i.e. calendulosides) and flavonoids (3-O-glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin), including astragalin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and rutin. Other constituents include essential oil, sesquiterpenes (e.g. caryophyllene) and triterpenes (e.g. α- and β-amyrins, lupeol and lupenone). Polysaccharides have also been reported. The structures of the characteristic triterpene saponins and flavonoids are presented below.

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
External treatment of superficial cuts, minor inflammations of the skin and oral mucosa, wounds and ulcus cruris.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of amenorrhoea, angina, fevers, gastritis, hypotension, jaundice, rheumatism and vomiting

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Immunostimulant, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, Anti-inflammatory, Wound healing

Contraindications
Flos Calendulae is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Saponins isolated from Flos Calendulae were not mutagenic at a concentration of 400mg/ml in the Salmonella/microsome assay using S. typhimurium strain TA98, with or without S9 metabolic activation. Extracts of the flowers were not carcinogenic after daily intragastric administration of 0.15 g/kg body weight to rats (for 22 months) or hamsters (for 18 months). Mutagenicity testing of the fluidextract in the Salmonella/microsome assay (using S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537) was negative at concentrations of up to 5mg/plate. The mouse bone marrow micronucleus test was also negative after daily administration of up to 1 g/kg body weight for 2 days. A fluidextract of the flowers (100mg/ml, 60% ethanol) was genotoxic in both mitotic crossing-over and chromosome segregation when assayed for mitotic segregation in the heterozygous diploid D-30 of Aspergillus nidulans.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic and nonteratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use. Therefore, Flos Calendulae should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to children without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
Weak skin-sensitization has been reported

Dosage forms
Infusion for topical use; aqueous and alcohol extracts, tinctures and ointment for external use. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Topical application: an infusion of 1–2 g/150 ml. External use: a 40% alcohol extract (1 : 1), or tincture (1 : 5) in 90% alcohol. For the treatment of wounds, the tincture is applied undiluted; for compresses, the tincture is usually diluted at least 1 : 3 with sterile water. Ointment: 2–5%

 

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