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Brucea javanica
Buplureum falcatum


 

 

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Untitled Document Bupleurum falcatum L. or B. falcatum L. var. scorzonerifolium (Willd.) Ledeb. (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae)

Synonyms
Bupleurum chinense D.C. and B. scorzonerifolium Willd. have been treated as different species but are actually synonyms of B. falcatum L. var. scorzonerifolium

Local names
Beichaihu, bupleurum root, ch’ai hu, chaifu, chaihu, chaiku-saiko, Chinese thorowax root, juk-siho, kara-saiko, mishima-saiko, nanchaihu, northern Chinese thorowax root, radix bupleur, saiko, shi ho, shoku-saiko, wa-saiko, Yamasaiko

Description
A perennial herb up to 1m tall; base woody and the rhizome branching. Stem slender, flexuous, branches spreading. Basal leaves lanceolate, upper lamina broad, lower narrowed into a petiole, veins 7, apex acute, mucronate; middle and upper leaves linear to lanceolate, gradually shorter, falcate, veins 7–9, base slightly amplexicaul, apex acuminate. Involucre of 1–3 minute bracts or lacking. Rays 5–8. Involucel of 5 minute, 3-veined bractlets, shorter than the flowering umbellet. Pedicels shorter than the fruits. Fruit oblong, 3–4 mm long; furrows 3- vittate

Plant material used
dried roots

Chemical assays
Total saikosaponins determination by colorimetric analysis (11), and highperformance liquid chromatography analysis for saikosaponins A, B1, B2, and D

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are triterpene saponins, including saikosaponins A, B1–4, D, E, F and H and related compounds including saikogenins A–G. Two biologically active polysaccharides, bupleurans 2IIb and 2IIc, have also been isolated from the roots of B. falcatum

Dosage forms
Decoction. Store crude plant material in a dry environment protected from moths, light, and moisture

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of fever, pain, and inflammation associated with influenza, and the common cold. The drug is also used as an analgesic for the treatment of distending pain in the chest and hypochondriac regions, and for amenorrhoea. Extracts have been used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, nephrotic syndrome, and autoimmune diseases

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of deafness, dizziness, diabetes, wounds, and vomiting

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antipyretic and analgesic, Sedative, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulator, Antiulcer, Hepatoprotectant,

Human studies
Antipyretic,

Contraindications
No information available.

Warnings
Radix Bupleuri causes sedation when used in large doses; therefore, patients should be cautious when operating a motor vehicle or hazardous machinery.

Precautions
Drug interactions
The use of alcohol, sedatives and other central nervous system depressants in conjunction with Radix Bupleuri may cause synergistic sedative effects. No clinical studies have evaluated this possible interaction; however, patients should be cautioned about taking the drug with alcohol, sedatives, or other drugs known to cause depression of the central nervous system.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Methanolic extracts of B. chinense (B. falcatum) were not mutagenic in the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100, in the presence or absence of rat liver S-9 mix. Furthermore, hot-water extracts of Bupleurum were shown to have antimutagenic activity in AFB1-induced mutagenesis in the mouse Salmonella typhi/mammalian microsomal system (Ames test) (strain TA 98) and in the in vivo mouse bone marrow cell chromosome aberration and mouse bone marrow eosinophil micronucleus test (37). There is one report that a hot-water extract of B. falcatum enhanced the mutagenic activity of Trp-P-1 with S9 mix in Salmonella typhimurium.

Pregnancy: teratogenic and non-teratogenic effects
No data available; therefore, B. falcatum should not be administered during pregnancy.

Nursing mothers
Excretion of the drug into breast milk and its effects on the newborn infant have not been established; therefore, Bupleurum should not be administered to nursing women.

Paediatric use
Guidelines for the administration of the drug to children are not available.

Other precautions
No information available concerning general precautions or drug and laboratory test interactions.

Adverse reactions
Mild lassitude, sedation, and drowsiness have been reported as frequent sideeffects. Large doses have also been reported to decrease appetite and cause pronounced flatulence and abdominal distension. Three incidents of allergic reactions were reported in patients given intramuscular injections of the drug

Posology
Generally, doses of 3–9g/day

 

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