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Azadirachta indica


 

 

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Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae)

Synonyms
Melia azadirachta L., M. indica (A. Juss.) Brand., M. indica Brand.

Local names
Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach, bead tree, bevinama, bevu, bewina mara, bodetso, bo-nim, cape lilac, chajara hourra, chichaâne arbi, China berry, China tree, cót anh, darbejiya, dogo yaro, dogo’n yaro, dogonyaro, dogoyaro, dongo yaro, dua gyane, gori, gringging, holy tree, igi-oba, imba, Indian lilac, Indian lilac tree, Indian neem tree, Indian sadao, Intaran, isa-bevu, jaroud, kahibevu, kingtsho, kiswahhili, kohhomba, kohumba, koummar, kuman masar, kuman nasara, kwinin, labkh, lilac de perse, lilas des indes, liliti, limb, limba, limbado, limado, linigbe, mahanim, mahanimba, mahnimu, mak tong, margosa, margosa tree, margose, marrar, mimba, mindi, miro tahiti, mwarobaini, neeb, neem, neem sikha, nim, nim tree, nimba, nimbatikta, nimgach, nivaquine, ogwu akom, oilevevu, ouchi, Persian lilac, phãk kã dão, picumarda, sa-dao, sa-dao baan, sadao India, sdau, salien, sandan, sandannoki, sãu dâu, senjed talhk, shajarat el horrah, shereesh, tâak, tâakhak, touchenboku, vembu, vemmu, vepa, veppam, veppu, white cedar, xoan dào, zanzalakht, zaytoon

Description
A straight-boled deciduous tree 6–25 m high. Bark dark-brown, externally fissured, with a buff inner surface, fi brous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound, up to 40 cm long, composed of 8–
18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed, curved toothed leafl ets, 3–10 cm long and 1–4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. Infl orescences axillary panicles; fl owers numerous, white, pedicillate, about 1.0 cm wide. Fruits yellowish drupes, oblong, about 1.5 cm long, containing thin pulp surrounding a single seed. When bruised, leaves and twigs emit an onion-like odour

Plant material used
dried leaves, Other plant parts are also used, but not included here: flowers, seeds, stem bark, oil

Chemical assays
High-performance liquid chromatography methods are available for the quantitative determination of oxidized tetranortriterpenes

Major chemical constituents
The major characteristic constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), 3-tigloylazadirachtol (azadirachtin B), 1-tigloyl-3-acetyl-11-hydroxy-meliacarpin (azadirachtin D), 11-demethoxycarbonyl azadirachtin (azadirachtin H), 1-tigloyl-3- acetyl-11-hydroxy-11-demethoxycarbonyl meliacarpin (azadirachtin I), azadiriadione, azadirachtanin, epoxyazadiradione, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, azadirachtolide, isoazadirolide, margosinolide, nimbandiol, nimbinene, nimbolin A, nimbocinone, nimbocinolide, nimbolide, nimocin, nimocinol and related derivatives

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
External applications for treatment of ringworm. However, data from controlled clinical trials are lacking.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of worm and lice infections, jaundice, external ulcers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gingivitis, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders. External applications for treatment of septic wounds and boils

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, delirium in fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, jaundice, kidney stones, leprosy, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, smallpox, sprains and muscular pain, syphilis, yellow fever, warts and wounds. Also used as an antivenin, contraceptive, emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Anxiolytic and analgesic, Antiandrogenic, Antihepatotoxic, Anti-inflammatory, Antihyperglycaemic, Antimalarial, Antimicrobial and antiviral, Antioxidant, Antiulcer, Immunomodulator

Human studies
Ringworm

Adverse reactions
A case of ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest due to neem leaf poisoning has been reported. Contact dermatitis has also been reported

Contraindications
Owing to potential genotoxic effects, the leaves should not be administered during pregnancy or nursing, or to children under the age of 12 years.

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Drug interactions
Administration of Folium Azadirachti may reduce blood glucose levels and should therefore be used with caution in insulin-dependent diabetic patients or patients taking oral antihyperglycaemic drugs.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
A petroleum ether extract of the leaves was not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay at concentrations of 0.1 ml/plate using S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537. Intragastric administration of 5.0 mg/10 g bw, 10.0 mg/10 g bw or 20.0 mg/10 g bw of an ethanol extract of the leaves per day for 7 days to mice signifi cantly (P < 0.05) increased the incidence of structural and mitotic disruptive changes in metaphase chromosomes of bone marrow cells on days 8, 15 and 35. Intragastric administration of 100.0 mg/kg bw of an ethanol extract of the leaves per day for 21 days had no effect on spermatogenesis in male rats, and no effect on implantation in female animals mated with treated males

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Intragastric administration of 200.0 mg/kg bw of an acetone or 50% ethanol extract of the leaves to pregnant rats on days 1–7 of pregnancy did not produce any teratogenic or embryotoxic effects.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning drug and laboratory test reactions; or non-teratogenic effects in pregnancy.

Dosage forms
Dried leaves for infusions and decoctions, and extracts and tinctures. Store leaves in a cool, dry place

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Infusion (1:20): 15–30 ml. Tincture (1:5): 4–8 ml. External applications: 70% ethanol extract of the leaves diluted to 40%, apply twice daily


Plant material used
fixed oil

Chemical assays
A high-performance liquid chromatography procedure is available for the quantitative determination of oxidized tetranortriterpenes

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17- hydroxydiradione and related derivatives

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
As a contraceptive for intravaginal use, as a mosquito repellent, and for treatment of vaginal infections. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed before the oil can be recommended for general use.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders. External applications for treatment of septic wounds, ulcers and boils.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. As an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide.

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies

Antifertility, Antihyperglycaemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial and antiviral, Antiulcer, Estrogenic, Immunomodulator

Human studies
Contraceptive, Antibacterial, Insect repellent, Treatment of skin disorders

Adverse reactions
A 60-year-old male was admitted to hospital with neurological and psychotic symptoms following ingestion of 60.0 ml of Oleum Azadirachti. However, correlation of the adverse effects with ingestion of the oil was not definitely proven

Contraindications
Oral administration of Oleum Azadirachti is contraindicated during pregnancy, nursing and in children under the age of 12 years.

Warnings
A number of cases of toxicity, including toxic encephalopathy, poisoning and Reye-like syndrome, following ingestion of excessive doses of Oleum Azadirachti have been reported.

Precautions
Drug interactions
Administration of the oil may reduce blood glucose levels. It should therefore be used with caution in insulin-dependent diabetic patients or patients taking oral antihyperglycaemic drugs.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
An acetone extract of the oil was inactive at concentrations of up to 200.0 mg/plate in the Salmonella/microsome assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. In the same test, the oil (concentration not specifi ed) was not mutagenic using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, with or without metabolic activation. The oil has demonstrated antifertility effects in numerous animal and human studies

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
The oil had embryotoxic effects after vaginal administration to pregnant rats at a dose of 0.25 ml/animal. Embryotoxic effects were also reported following intragastric administration of 4.0 ml/kg bw of the oil to pregnant rats on days 6–8 of pregnancy.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or on precautions concerning
drug and laboratory test interactions.

Dosage forms
Oil. Store in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Dose: 1.0–5.0 ml of oil for intravaginal applications

 

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