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Allium cepa
Aloe vera
Allium sativum
Astragalus membranaceus
Angelica sinensis
Aesculus hippocastanum
Althaea officinalis
Andrographis paniculata
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Ammi majus
Ammi visnaga
Anethum graveolens
Arnica montana
Azadirachta indica


 

 

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Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae)

Synonyms
Although Angelica sinensis has also been referred to as Ange lica polymorpha Maxim. var. sinensis the latter being a synonym for A. polymorpha Maxim, their synonymy has not yet been firmly established

Local names
Can qui, Chinese Angelica, dangdanggui, dang gui, dong quai, duong qui handanggui, hashyshat almalak, kara toki, langdu danggui, min-gui, tang-kuei, tangkuei tâ`n q´ui

Description
A fragrant, perennial herb, 0.5–1.0 m high. Stem glabrous and purplish, with light, linear striations. Inferior leaves tripinnate; superior leaves often pinnate; segments oval, dentate-incised, teeth obtuse. Petiole 3–11cm long, sheathed; bracts rudimentary, not prominent. Umbels 10–14, radiate on top of the plant, rays irregular, interior margin uneven; bracteoles, narrow-linear 2–4; pedicels slender; carpophore bipartite; each umbel multiflorous (12–36 flowers); umbel stem 0.3–1.5 cm long. Flowers white, 5 petals, glabrous, incurvate at the tips. Carpels dorsally compressed, square-elliptical, the base cordiform, the tip rounded or lightly notched; dorsal veins 5, closely placed, projecting; central vein barely winged, marginal veins with very large wings; ducts oleaginous, 1 in each sinus, 2 in the commissure

Plant material used
dried roots

Chemical assays
Methods for both qualitative and quantitative determination of the alkyl phthalide components by high-performance liquid chromatography have been developed. National requirements for quantitative criteria should be established with respect to the concentration ranges reported for the essential oil (0.4–0.7%) and ligustilide (0.5–5.0%)

Major chemical constituents
The characteristic components are the simple alkyl phthalides (ligustilide, (Z)- ligustilide, (Z)-6,7-epoxyligustilide, angelicide, (Z)-butylidenephthalide, butylphthalide, 2,4-dihydrophthalic anhydride), which are the major components of the essential oil fraction of the roots. Other characteristic components of the oil have been identified as terpenes (β-cadinene, carvacrol and cis-β-ocimene). The non-volatile constituents reported are phenylpropanoids ((E)-ferulic acid,coniferyl ferulate); benzenoids (valerophenone-o-carboxylic acid and vanillic acid); and coumarins (angelol G, angelicone and umbelliferone). It has been shown by high-performance liquid chromatography that the major chemical constituent of the roots is ligustilide, which can account for over 5%. Polysaccharide fractions of low relative molecular mass have also been reported

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
None. Although Radix Angelicae Sinensis has been alleged to be useful for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial concluded that 4.5 g of the root daily for 24 weeks did not alleviate menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of menstrual disorders such as irregular menstruation, amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea. As an analgesic for symptomatic treatment of rheumatic arthralgia, abdominal pain and in the management of postoperative pain. Treatment of constipation, anaemia, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of dehydration, lumbago, abnormal menstruation, menopausal symptoms (including hot flushes), hypertonia and nervous disorders

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Smoooth muscle relaxant, Antihepatotoxic, Improve cardiac hemodynamic, Antithrombotic

Human studies
Menstrual disorders,
Smoooth muscle relaxant

Contraindications
Radix Angelicae Sinensis should not be administered to children or patients with diarrhoea, haemorrhagic diseases or hypermenorrhoea, and should not be used during pregnancy or lactation

Warnings
No information available.

Precautions
Drug interactions
Decreased prothrombin times were reported in rabbits that received both a single subcutaneous dose of warfarin (2 mg/kg body weight) and a repeated oral dose of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (2 g/kg body weight twice daily for 3 days). Therefore, patients receiving anticoagulant therapy should be advised against taking Radix Angelicae Sinensis without medical supervision.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications.

Paediatric use
See Contraindications.

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug and laboratory test interactions; or carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and impairment of fertility.

Adverse reactions
Oral administration of Radix Angelicae Sinensis is generally regarded as having few side-effects; however, headaches may occur in sensitive individuals. No adverse reactions were reported in 40 people who received an aqueous root extract by intravenous administration (240 ml/person) for 30 days.

Dosage forms
Powdered crude drug and fluidextracts. Store in an airtight container in a cool, dry place protected from moisture

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage: 4.5–9 g crude drug

 

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