Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae)
Pastinaca anethum Spreng., Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook.,Selinum
Aneth, anethum, bo-baluntshep, dill, Dill-Fenchel, eneldo, faux anis aneth,
fenouil bâtard, fenouil puant, garden dill, Gartendill, hinan, inondo,
jirashi, kapor, kerwiya amya, koper, sadapa, sadhab el barr, satakuppa, satakuppi,
sathukuppa, satpushpa, shabat, shabath, shatapuspi, shebet, shebid, sheved,
shevid, shi ra ja, shibth, sibt, slulpha, soolpha, sova, sowa, s-sebt, suva,
sulpha, sutopsha, thian ta takkataen, zira
An aromatic annual or biennial herb, 40–120 cm high, with an erect hollow
green stem, branching above. Leaves glaucous, tripinnate, with linear leafl
ets. Infl orescence umbellate with 15–30 rays; bracts and bracteoles absent;
fl owers yellow. Fruits deep brown, fl attened, oval, with protruding clear
back ribs with sharp edges
Plant material used
ried ripe fruits
Contains not less than 2.0% essential oil. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass
spectrometry methods for essential oil constituents are also available.
Major chemical constituents
Contains 2–5% essential oil, the major constituent of which is carvone
(20–60%). The carvone content in plants cultivated in India is reported
to be 6% less than in those cultivated in Europe. Other characteristic terpenoid
essential oil constituents include dihydrocarvone, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, limonene,
α-phellandrene, α-pinene and α-terpinene. The flavonoids present
include kaempferol-glucuronide. Dillapiol is found in the essential oil obtained
from plants cultivated in Egypt, India and Japan
Uses supported by clinical data
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established
Treatment of dyspepsia, gastritis and flatulence, and stomach ache.
Uses described in traditional medicine
As an aphrodisiac, analgesic, antipyretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue,
appetite stimulant and vaginal contraceptive. Treatment of diarrhoea, asthma,
neuralgia, dysuria, dysmenorrhoea, gallbladder disease, insomnia, hiatus hernia
and kidney stones
Allergic reactions to Fructus Anethi including oral pruritus, tongue and throat
swelling and urticaria, as well as vomiting and diarrhoea were reported in one
patient with a history of allergic rhinitis.
Traditionally, extracts of fruits (seeds) have been used as a contraceptive
and to induce labour. Furthermore, extracts of the fruits may have teratogenic
effects. Therefore, the use of Fructus Anethi during pregnancy and nursing is
No information available.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
A chloroform–methanol (2:1) extract of the fruits was not mutagenic in
concentrations up to 100.0 mg/plate in the Salmonella/microsome assay using
S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, with or without metabolic activation.
A 95% ethanol extract was also without mutagenic activity in the same test system.
An essential oil prepared from the fruits was cytotoxic to human lymphocytes
in vitro, and was active in the chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange
tests in the same system. The oil was inactive in the Drosophila melanogaster
somatic mutation and recombination test in vivo.
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug
interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic effects during
pregnancy; or paediatric use.
Dried fruits for teas, essential oil and other galenical preparations for internal
applications. Store in a tightly sealed container away from heat and light.
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Average daily dose: Fructus Anethi 3 g; essential oil 0.1–0.3 g; or equivalent
for other preparations