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Allium cepa
Aloe vera
Allium sativum
Astragalus membranaceus
Angelica sinensis
Aesculus hippocastanum
Althaea officinalis
Andrographis paniculata
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Ammi majus
Ammi visnaga
Anethum graveolens
Arnica montana
Azadirachta indica


 

 

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Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae)

Synonyms
Justicia latebrosa Russ., J. paniculata Burm. f., J. stricta Lam. ex Steud.

Local names
Akar cerita bidara, alui, Andrographidis Kraut, bidara, bhoonimba, bhuinimo, bhulimb, bhuninba, charayeta, charayetha, charita, cheranta, cherota, chiraita, chiretta, chuan-hsin-lien, chua¯n-xi¯n-lián, công công, faathalaaichon, fathalaai, fathalaichon, fathalaijone, halviva, herba sambiloto, hinbinkohomba, I-chienhsi, kalafath, kalmegh, kan-jang, kariyat, khee-pang-hee, king of bitters, kiriathu, kirta, kiryata, kiryato, lanhelian, mahatikta, mahatita, naelavemu, naynahudandi, nelavemu, quasab-uz-zarirah, rice bitters, sambilata, sambiloto, senshinren, sinta, xuyên tâm liên, yaa kannguu yijianxi

Description
A herbaceous annual, erect, up to 1m high; stem acutely quadrangular, much branched. Leaves simple, opposite, lanceolate, glabrous, 2–12cm long, 1–3cm wide; apex acute; margin entire, slightly undulate, upper leaves often bractiform; petiole short. Inflorescence patent, terminal and axillary in panicle, 10– 30mm long; bract small; pedicel short. Calyx 5-particle, small, linear. Corolla tube narrow, about 6 mm long; limb longer than the tube, bilabiate; upper lip oblong, white with a yellowish top; lower lip broadly cuneate, 3-lobed, white with violet markings. Stamens 2, inserted in the throat and far exserted; anther basally bearded. Superior ovary, 2-celled; style far exserted. Capsule erect, linear-oblong, 1–2 cm long and 2–5 mm wide, compressed, longitudinally furrowed on broad faces, acute at both ends, thinly glandular-hairy. Seeds small, subquadrate

Plant material used
dried aerial parts

Chemical assays
Chemical and thin-layer chromatography methods are used for qualitative analysis of andrographolide diterpene lactones. Titrimetric and high-performance liquid chromatography methods are available for quantitative analysis of total diterpene lactones.

Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are diterpene lactones (free and in glycosidic forms) including andrographolide, deoxyandrographolide, 11,12-didehydro-14-deoxyandrographolide, neoandrographolide, andrographiside, deoxyandrographiside and andropanoside

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Prophylaxis and symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold and uncomplicated sinusitis, bronchitis and pharyngotonsillitis, lower urinary tract infections and acute diarrhoea.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of bacillary dysentery, bronchitis, carbuncles, colitis, coughs, dyspepsia, fevers, hepatitis, malaria, mouth ulcers, sores, tuberculosis and venomous snake bites.

Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of colic, otitis media, vaginitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chickenpox, eczema and burns

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antibacterial, Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Immunostimulatory, Antipyretic, Antidiarrhoeal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antivenom, Antihepatotoxic

Human studies
Common cold, Urinary infections, Dysentery, Infectious hepatitis

Contraindications
Herba Andrographidis should not be used during pregnancy or lactation. Herba Andrographidis is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants of the Acanthaceae family.

Warnings
Due to potential anaphylactic reactions, crude extracts of Herba Andrographidis should not be injected.

Precautions
Drug interactions
Extracts of Herba Andrographidis may have a synergistic effect with isoniazid.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Herba Andrographidis extracts are not mutagenic in vitro (57) and have antimutagenic activity. A standardized extract of A. paniculata did not produce reproductive toxicity in male rats after 60 days of intragastric administration of 20–1000mg/kg body weight daily.

Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
See Contraindications.

Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
In vivo studies in mice and rabbits suggest that Herba Andrographidis may have abortifacient activity. Conversely, no interruption of pregnancy, fetal resorption or decrease in the number of live offspring was observed in pregnant rats after intragastric administration of an extract of the aerial parts at 2g/kg body weight during the first 9 days of gestation. Since potential antagonism exists between Herba Andrographidis and endogenous progesterone, Herba Andrographidis should not be used during pregnancy.

Nursing mothers
See Contraindications

Other precautions
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug and laboratory test interactions; or paediatric use. Therefore, Herba Andrographidis should not be administered to children without medical supervision.

Adverse reactions
Large oral doses of Herba Andrographidis may cause gastric discomfort, vomiting and loss of appetite. These side-effects appear to be due to the bitter taste of andrographolide. Anaphylactic reactions may occur if the crude drug extract is injected. Two cases of urticaria have been reported.

Dosage forms
Crude drug, capsules, tablets and pills. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light and moisture.

Posology
(Unless otherwise indicated)
For pyrexia: a decoction from 3 g crude drug, twice daily. For the common cold: 1.5–3.0 g powdered crude drug three times daily, after meals and at bedtime. For diarrhoea: a decoction from 3–9 g crude drug as a single dose as needed, or two tablets of 500 mg four times daily, after meals and at bedtime

 

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