Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae)
Justicia latebrosa Russ., J. paniculata Burm. f., J. stricta Lam. ex Steud.
Akar cerita bidara, alui, Andrographidis Kraut, bidara, bhoonimba, bhuinimo,
bhulimb, bhuninba, charayeta, charayetha, charita, cheranta, cherota, chiraita,
chiretta, chuan-hsin-lien, chua¯n-xi¯n-lián, công công,
faathalaaichon, fathalaai, fathalaichon, fathalaijone, halviva, herba sambiloto,
hinbinkohomba, I-chienhsi, kalafath, kalmegh, kan-jang, kariyat, khee-pang-hee,
king of bitters, kiriathu, kirta, kiryata, kiryato, lanhelian, mahatikta, mahatita,
naelavemu, naynahudandi, nelavemu, quasab-uz-zarirah, rice bitters, sambilata,
sambiloto, senshinren, sinta, xuyên tâm liên, yaa kannguu
A herbaceous annual, erect, up to 1m high; stem acutely quadrangular, much branched.
Leaves simple, opposite, lanceolate, glabrous, 2–12cm long, 1–3cm
wide; apex acute; margin entire, slightly undulate, upper leaves often bractiform;
petiole short. Inflorescence patent, terminal and axillary in panicle, 10–
30mm long; bract small; pedicel short. Calyx 5-particle, small, linear. Corolla
tube narrow, about 6 mm long; limb longer than the tube, bilabiate; upper lip
oblong, white with a yellowish top; lower lip broadly cuneate, 3-lobed, white
with violet markings. Stamens 2, inserted in the throat and far exserted; anther
basally bearded. Superior ovary, 2-celled; style far exserted. Capsule erect,
linear-oblong, 1–2 cm long and 2–5 mm wide, compressed, longitudinally
furrowed on broad faces, acute at both ends, thinly glandular-hairy. Seeds small,
Plant material used
dried aerial parts
Chemical and thin-layer chromatography methods are used for qualitative analysis
of andrographolide diterpene lactones. Titrimetric and high-performance liquid
chromatography methods are available for quantitative analysis of total diterpene
Major chemical constituents
The major constituents are diterpene lactones (free and in glycosidic forms)
including andrographolide, deoxyandrographolide, 11,12-didehydro-14-deoxyandrographolide,
neoandrographolide, andrographiside, deoxyandrographiside and andropanoside
Uses supported by clinical data
Prophylaxis and symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections, such
as the common cold and uncomplicated sinusitis, bronchitis and pharyngotonsillitis,
lower urinary tract infections and acute diarrhoea.
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well
Treatment of bacillary dysentery, bronchitis, carbuncles, colitis, coughs, dyspepsia,
fevers, hepatitis, malaria, mouth ulcers, sores, tuberculosis and venomous snake
Uses described in traditional medicine
Treatment of colic, otitis media, vaginitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chickenpox,
eczema and burns
Proven pharmacological activity
Antibacterial, Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Immunostimulatory, Antipyretic,
Antidiarrhoeal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antivenom, Antihepatotoxic
Common cold, Urinary infections, Dysentery, Infectious
Herba Andrographidis should not be used during pregnancy or lactation. Herba
Andrographidis is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants of the
Due to potential anaphylactic reactions, crude extracts of Herba Andrographidis
should not be injected.
Extracts of Herba Andrographidis may have a synergistic effect with isoniazid.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Herba Andrographidis extracts are not mutagenic in vitro (57) and have antimutagenic
activity. A standardized extract of A. paniculata did not produce reproductive
toxicity in male rats after 60 days of intragastric administration of 20–1000mg/kg
body weight daily.
Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
In vivo studies in mice and rabbits suggest that Herba Andrographidis may have
abortifacient activity. Conversely, no interruption of pregnancy, fetal resorption
or decrease in the number of live offspring was observed in pregnant rats after
intragastric administration of an extract of the aerial parts at 2g/kg body
weight during the first 9 days of gestation. Since potential antagonism exists
between Herba Andrographidis and endogenous progesterone, Herba Andrographidis
should not be used during pregnancy.
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug
and laboratory test interactions; or paediatric use. Therefore, Herba Andrographidis
should not be administered to children without medical supervision.
Large oral doses of Herba Andrographidis may cause gastric discomfort, vomiting
and loss of appetite. These side-effects appear to be due to the bitter taste
of andrographolide. Anaphylactic reactions may occur if the crude drug extract
is injected. Two cases of urticaria have been reported.
Crude drug, capsules, tablets and pills. Store in a well-closed container, protected
from light and moisture.
(Unless otherwise indicated)
For pyrexia: a decoction from 3 g crude drug, twice daily. For the common cold:
1.5–3.0 g powdered crude drug three times daily, after meals and at bedtime.
For diarrhoea: a decoction from 3–9 g crude drug as a single dose as needed,
or two tablets of 500 mg four times daily, after meals and at bedtime