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Allium cepa
Aloe vera
Allium sativum
Astragalus membranaceus
Angelica sinensis
Aesculus hippocastanum
Althaea officinalis
Andrographis paniculata
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Ammi majus
Ammi visnaga
Anethum graveolens
Arnica montana
Azadirachta indica


 

 

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Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae)

Synonyms
Allium esculentum Salisb., Allium porrum cepa Rehb.

Local names
It is most commonly known as “onion”. Basal, basl, cebolla, cebolla morada, cepa bulb, cepolla, cipolla, common onion, cu hanh, hom hua yai, hom khaao, hom yai, hu-t’sung, hu t’sung t’song, hua phak bhu, i-i-bsel, kesounni, khtim, Küchenzwiebel, l’oignon, loyon, Madras oignon, oignon, palandu, piyaj, piyaz, pyaz, pyaaz, ralu lunu, red globe onion, sibuyas, Spanish onion, tamanegi, umbi bawang merah, vengayan, yellow Bermuda onion, white globe onion, Zwiebel

Description
A perennial herb, strong smelling when crushed; bulbs vary in size and shape from cultivar to cultivar, often depressed-globose and up to 20 cm in diameter; outer tunics membranous. Stem up to 100cm tall and 30 mm in diameter, tapering from inflated lower part. Leaves up to 40 cm in height and 20mm in diameter, usually almost semicircular in section and slightly flattened on upper side; basal in first year, in second year their bases sheathing the lower sixth of the stem. Spathe often 3-valved, persistent, shorter than the umbel. Umbel 4– 9cm in diameter, subglobose or hemispherical, dense, many-flowered; pedicels up to 40mm, almost equal. Perianth stellate; segments 3–4.5  2–2.5mm, white, with green stripe, slightly unequal, the outer ovate, the inner oblong, obtuse or acute. Stamens exserted; filaments 4–5mm, the outer subulate, the inner with an expanded base up to 2 mm wide and bearing short teeth on each side. Ovary whitish. Capsule about 5mm, 2n  16.

Plant material of interest
fresh or dried bulbs

Chemical assays
Assay for organic sulfur constituents, cysteine sulfoxides and sulfides by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic or gas–liquid chromatographic methods, respectively. Quantitative levels to be established by appropriate national authority.

Major chemical constituents
Sulfur- and non-sulfur-containing chemical constituents have been isolated from Bulbus Allii Cepae; the sulfur compounds are the most characteristic. The organic sulfur compounds of Bulbus Allii Cepae, including the thiosulfinates, thiosulfonates, cepaenes, S-oxides, S,S'-dioxides, monosulfides, disulfides, trisulfides, and zwiebelanes occur only as degradation products of the naturally occurring cysteine sulfoxides (e.g. (+)-S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide).When the onion bulb is crushed, minced, or otherwise processed, the cysteine sulfoxides are released from compartments and contact the enzyme alliinase in adjacent vacuoles. Hydrolysis and immediate condensation of the reactive intermediate (sulfenic acids) form the compounds as indicated below. The odorous thiosulphonates occur (in low concentrations) only in freshly chopped onions, whereas the sulfides accumulate in stored extracts or steamdistilled oils. Approximately 90% of the soluble organic-bound sulfur is present as γ-glutamylcysteine peptides, which are not acted on by alliinase. They function as storage reserve and contribute to the germination of seeds. However, on prolonged storage or during germination, these peptides are acted on by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase to form alk(en)yl-cysteine sulfoxides, which in turn give rise to other volatile sulfur compounds.

Dosage forms
Fresh juice and 5% and 50% ethanol extracts have been used in clinical studies. A “soft” extract is marketed in France but is not recognized as a drug by French authorities. Dried Bulbus Allii Cepae products should be stored in well-closed containers, protected from light, moisture, and elevated temperature. Fresh bulbs and juice should be refrigerated (2–10°C)

Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
The principal use of Bulbus Allii Cepae today is to prevent age-dependent changes in the blood vessels, and loss of appetite.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Treatment of bacterial infections such as dysentery, and as a diuretic. The drug has also been used to treat ulcers, wounds, scars, keloids, and asthma. Bulbus Allii Cepae has also been used as an adjuvant therapy for diabetes. Uses described in folk medicine,

Uses described in traditional medicine
As an anthelminthic, aphrodisiac, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, and tonic, and for the treatment of bruises, bronchitis, cholera, colic, earache, fevers, high blood pressure, jaundice, pimples, and sores

Proven pharmacological activity
Animal studies
Antibacterial, Antihyperlipidemic, Platelet aggregation inhibitor, Antihyperglycemic, Diuretic, Smooth muscle relaxant, Anti-inflammation, Anti-allergy, Keloid treatment

Human studies
Platelet aggregation inhibitor, Antihyperlipidemic, Antihyperglycemic, Anti-allergy

Contraindications
Allergies to the plant. The level of safety of Bulbus Allii Cepae is reflected by its worldwide use as a vegetable.

Warnings
No warnings have been reported.

Precautions
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility Bulbus Allii Cepae is not mutagenic in vitro.

Other precautions
No general precautions have been reported, and no precautions have been reported concerning drug interactions, drug and laboratory test interactions,

Posology
Unless otherwise prescribed: a daily dosage is 50 g of fresh onion or 20 g of the dried drug; doses of preparations should be calculated accordingly

 

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